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929.2 

W9927d 

1710172 



REYNOLDS HISTORICAL 
GENEALOGY COLLECTION 



ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBBARY 



3 1833 01438 8232 




tfrUTC 



(A?yn*\g 



Signature of Dr. Thomas Wynne. 



THE WYNNES 



A Genealogical Summary of the Ancestry of the 
Welsh Wynnes, who Emigrated to Penn- 
sylvania with William Penn. 



By T. B. DEEM 



KNIGHTSTOWN, INDIANA 



Aetna Printing Co.. Is 

1907 



1710172 



COATS OF ARMS 




Desmoxd-Fitzgeralds 




KlI.DARE-FlTZGERAI.DS 




JOHN WYNNE, of Wales. 



^7 



ii 



t Oi 



9> > 



Copyrighted, 1907. 



Jo my late dear wife 

SARAH J. WYNN 

this volume is respectfully 

dedicated as a loving 

remembrance from her 

husband. 



Contents 



The de Hautevilles 17 

Robert le Guiscard 31 

Roger of Sicily 37 

Bohemond, the Crusader 43 

Tancred, the Peerless Knight 55 

The Hispano-Norman-Tuscan Branch . 65 

Royal Welsh 85 

The Story of Princess Nesta Ill 

The Montgomeries H9 

The Invasion of Ireland 127 

The Geraldines 137 

Return of Osbern 167 

The Welsh Wynnes 179 

Wynnes Come to America 203 

American Wynnes 235 

The Humphreys 255 

The Dickinsons 260 

The Chews 260 

The Wynnes 260 

Welcome Society of Pennsylvania 268 

The Second Jonathan Wynn 271 

Fayette County (Pa.) Branch 279 

The Thomas Wynne Branch of Pennsylvania Family 288 

Jonathan Wynne III 301 

Jonathan Wynn IV 306 

Family of James Wynne 324 

The Ohio Branch 328 



List of Illustrations 



John Wynne, of Wales Frontispiece 

Amalfi, Italy 21 

Ancient Jerusalem 27 

Storming of Antioch 35 

Tiberias, Palestine 39 

Palermo, Italy - 45 

Death of King Manfred 49 

Ferdinand the Catholic 53 

Palazzo di Podesta, Florence 57 

Windsor Castle, two views 61 

Princess Nesta 69 

Map of Ireland ( Norman ) 73 

Pembroke Castle 77 

Shrewsbury Castle 83 

Map of Wales (Ancient) 87 

A Glimpse of Snowdon 91 

. Corwen and Valley of the Dee 95 

Harlech Castle, Wales 99 

Cavew Castle, Wales 103 

Stone Coffin of Llewellen the Great 109 

Banne Harbor, Ireland (now Bannow) 113 

Lismore Castle, Ireland 117 

Askeaton Castle, Ireland 121 

Cahir Castle, Ireland 125 

Maynooth Castle, Ireland 129 

Conway Castle 133 

Cathedral of St. David, Wales 139 

Bettys- Y-Coed, Wales ■ 143 

Dolwyddelen Castle, Wales 145 

Gwydir Castle, Wales 149 

Sir John Wynne of Gwydir 155 

Wynnestaye, Wales 157 

Sarcophagus of King Llewellyn, Gwydir Chapel, Wales 161 

Wynncstay, Pennsylvania 165 

Wynnewood, Pennsylvania 169 

Bank Meeting House, Philadelphia 173 

Gen. John Cadwalader 177 

Rev. Jonathan Wynne, Fayette County, Pa 181 

Rev. Isaac Wynne, Fayette County, Pa 185 

Summer Home of Benjamin Corson, Fayette County, Pa 189 

Grave of Rev. Jonathan Wynne 193 

Grave of Mrs. Mary Wynne 197 



Marsh Farm, Chester County, Pa 201 

Rachel Wynne Zeublin and Husband 205 

Jonathan Wynne Zeublin, Pendleton, Ind 209 

Samuel Wynne, Chester County, Pa 213 

Joseph Wynne, Indiana 217 

Home of John Wynne, Crawford County, Ohio 221 

Wynne Coke Furnaces, Fayette County, Pa 225 

Old Wynne Homestead — Walter Laughead, at Oliphant Furnace, Pa. .229 

Jonathan Wynne, Crawford County, Ohio 233 

Thomas Wynne, of Texas 237 

Wynnefield, Illinois 241 

T. B. Deem, Knightstown, Ind 245 

Wynnewood Place, Texas • 249 

Mrs. Susan Wynne Arnold, Florida 253 

Mrs. Elizabeth Wynne French and Husband 257 

Isaac Wynne and Family, Crawford County, Ohio 2G1 

Thomas and Nancy Wynne, Toledo. Ohio 265 

Mr. and Mrs. E. S. Wynne, Toledo, Ohio 269 

John Wynne and Family, Paris, 111 273 

Sarah Wynne Deem, Knightstown, Ind 277 

Grave of Mrs. Lina Wynne, Edgar County, 111 281 

Residence of Sarah Wynne Deem, Knightstown, Ind -.285 

Mrs. Rachel Wynne Moyer and Family, Weatherford, Texas 289 

Mrs. Linnie Wynne Watson and Family, Chrisraan, 111 293 

Tho Five Hiday Brothers (Soldiers), Fortville, Ind 297 

Mrs. Ola Wynne Hudson and Family, Mouwequa, 111 303 

Isaac Newton Wynne, Mineral Wells, Texas 309 

Mrs. Mary Wynne Sothers and Family, Kansas 315 

Donald H. Deem, New York City 325 

Nadia Florence Deem, Knightstown, Ind 335 

GENEALOGICAL TABLES. 

Roger de Hauteville 42 

Rulers of Antioch, Tripoli and Cyprus 51 

Hispano-Norman Ancestry 67 

Descendants of Walter Fitz-Other 82 

Descendants of Princess Nesta 153 

Descendants of Maurice Fitzgerald 187 



PREFACE. 

THE author of this book has, by special request, taken upon 
himself to collect and arrange such matters as pertain to 
the genealogical history of the ancestors of that branch of 
the great Welsh family of Wynnes as are the offspring of Dr. 
Thomas Wynne, who emigrated to the Colony of Pennsylvania 
in company with William Penn, the founder, Or during 
the latter part of the seventeenth century. In undertaking 
this work I have had the usual fortune of compilers of family 
history: meeting with indifference, modesty, suspicion, jealousy, 
along with cordiality, eagerness and hearty support and helpful- 
ness. It is therefore observable that in some respects the work 
is full and comprehensive, while in others it is lacking in detail 
and other essentials which might have been obtained had fuller 
co-operation been forthcoming. Taken altogether, it is only 
pioneer work at the best, and if it but serves for a nucleus around 
which other information may be grouped, and systematized into 
a complete whole, the author will feel amply repaid for his efforts, 
and the members of the family interested will be equally benefited. 
Knightstown, Indiana, U. S. A. T.. B. Deem. 




THE BE HAUTEVILLES. 

IN ONE of the green valleys of the Cotentin, near a small 
stream that finds its way into the river Dove, in what was an- 
cient Normandy, hut now is the Dcpartmente le Manche, there 
are still standing the crumbling walls of an old Norman castle. It 
lies five miles northeast of Coutances, the nearest town of impor- 
tance, and dominates the village of Hauteville-la-Guichard. The 
scene from the ruins is very beautiful, with the wide sweep of fer- 
tile fields and leafy woodlands, with the many neat white farm- 
houses and villas dotting the landscape, and the shining thread of 
silver embowered in trees which mark the passage of the little river 
to the not very distant waters of the English channel. The neigh- 
boring fields still keep their old names of the Park, the Forest, and 
the Dove Cote; and in this way, if no other, the remembrance is 
preserved of an old feudal manor-house. Its roof has a warlike 
looking rampart, and a shapely tower with double crosses lifts itself 
against the sky, while around it are to be discerned faint traces of 
what might indicate a moat and the foundations of a drawbridge. 
Some gigantic oaks are clustered in groups about the estate, and 
under the spreading branches of a hoary cedar tree there is a little 
chapel built of stone, and a building whose venerable appearance 
makes one feel that its building dates back to the time when the 
people of whom we are going to write lived in the old castle, and 
worshipped in the beautiful little church. 

In the very first days of the eleventh century there lived 
in this quiet place an old Norman gentleman, probably a 
grandson of those fierce vikings who, sailing out from 
the grim old Norseland, had with Rolf the Ganger found 



17 



and conquered a fairer land in a summer clime than their 
own bleak hills afforded. Suffice it to say that stout old 
Sieur Tancred de Hauteville had been one of the most trusted 
officers in the household of that Duke of Normandy whom history 
names as Richard the Good. He was a tall, powerfully built man 
whose physical powers had been frequently tested at court festivals 
by feats of strength and daring for the pleasure of the company. 
One of his acts has been recorded by the cotemporary historian, and 
comes down to us: "While hunting with his prince one day, the 
duke was thrown from his horse by the unexpected rush of a large 
boar which he was attacking, and was in imminent danger from 
the tusks of the infuriated animal. With the quickness of light- 
ning Sieur Tancred sprang from his horse and, drawing his sword, 
drove the weapon into the breast of the beast, through bone and 
brawn and tissue until the cross-handled hilt touched home. Now, 
it was a sad breach of court etiquette for a follower to strike game 
in the presence of his sovereign, but the act was condoned on 
account of the imminence of the peril, and the old duke embraced 
his deliverer, and appointed him as captain of his bodyguard. Sir 
Tancred served his prince for many years until the latter was 
gathered to his fathers, and his son Eichard the Devil came to 
be ruler, when the old Norman was dismissed with favor and re- 
turned to his ancestral domain, there to pass the remainder of his 
days in peace and quietude, ami rear his family. This family was 
a numerous one for even those days, and the posterity roll com- 
prised twelve sons and three daughters. His first wife was named 
Muriel, and by her he had five sons, Serlon, William, Drogo, 
Humphrey and Geoffry, and one daughter, Emma. After the 
mother's death he married again, the second wife being named 
Margaret. In those days wives, unless they were heiresses to 
large landed possessions were generally known by their Christian 
names, and not much account taken of their lineage. So we can 
not learn from what particular ancestry the female branch of the 
' De Haxitcvilles sprang. The latter wife bore her spouse seven 
sons and two daughters. The names of all these can not be 
gathered, but mention is made of Robert, Humbert, Gerard and 
Roger, and one of the daughters, ^Margaret. This progeny of 
sons were all of the same stalwart mold as their father, and evi- 
dently gifted with abundant shrewdness and intelligence. They 

18 



received such education as gentlemen gave their children in those 
days, and above everything else, were made expert in the use of 
arms and horses and the pleasures of the chase. One of the old 
French chroniclers tells us that "they had an air of dignity, and 
even in their youth great things were expected of them; it was 
easy to prophesy their brilliant future." 

But the nest was overfull, and the young eaglets began to grow 
restless. While they were still hardly more than boys, Serlon, the 
eldest, was sent to court and became a gentleman in waiting on 
the duke. In those turbulent days where gentlemen were ofttimes 
compelled to carve out their place in society with their sword in 
very fact, it speedily happened that Serlon became engaged in a 
rencontre with one of his associates, and in resenting an insult 
which the latter offered him, Serlon was so unfortunate as to kill 
his adversary. He escaped to England, where he spent some time 
in the dreariness of exile. This brought great sorrow to the over- 
crowded household in Cotentin ; it was most likely that a great 
deal depended on Serlon s success, and the eager boys at home were 
looking to him for their own advancement. However, the dis- 
appointment was not for long; for it was the time when Henry of 
France was likely to lose his throne through the intrigues of his 
brother and his mother, Constance of Provence, and Henry came 
to the Duke of Xormandy for aid. Serlon came home again, and, 
keeping himself in the guise of an unknown knight, a role by no 
means uncommon in those days, he fought like a tiger at the siege 
of Tillieres. You remember that this siege lasted a long time and 
m gave rise to many incidents peculiar to wars of that age. At one 
stage of the siege a powerful knight developed the habit of coming 
forth from the city every day and challenging an opponent to 
single combat. So puissant was this champion that many of the 
French had been slain by his spear, until no more would adven- 
ture the combat. This was an opportunity for distinction before 
the whole army and a chance which the shrewd son of brave old 
Taucred saw would, if successfully carried out, rehabilitate him in 
the good graces of his prince. So one morning before the appear- 
ance of the challenger he took the initiative and rode up in front 
of the gate and demanded that the adversary come forth. This 
the latter quickly did, and, upon his appearance, demanded of 
Serlon who he was ; and, "as if he realized that he had met his 

19 



match, counseled the champion of Normandy to run away and 
not try to tight with him." Nobody knew the banished man who 
carefi lly kept his visor down, and when the fight was over, and 
the enemy's head graced his spear point as he earicolled his steed 
in front of the ranks of his Norman friends, the whole army broke 
forth in plaudits of his valorous deed. Duke Robert being ap- 
prized of the affair, sent for Scrlon, ''and on his removing his 
helmet, disclosing the features of his former squire, he embraced 
him; and, still more, he gave back to him all the lands and treas- 
ures comprising Serlon's wife's dower, which had been confiscated 
when the young Norman had been driven from the country." 

This triumph of the elder brother filled the younger boys with 
martial spirit, and as there was at that time many young Xormans 
going to Southern Italy on invitation of the Christian rulers there 
who wanted help against the inroads of the Moslems, who had 
already overran Sicily and were making raids upon the main- 
land and devastating the country and towns, three of the eldest 
left Normandy for Italy and reached Naples soon after the found- 
ing of Aversa by Rainulf the Norman (just north of Naples, 
founded in 1030) and took service with that nobleman. They 
soon acquired an extraordinary reputation for courage and quick- 
ness of resource. Their names were William Bras de Fer, or the 
Iron Arm. Drogo and Humphrey. 

An Italian historian said of the first Normans who settled in 
that country: "The Normans are a cunning and revengeful 
people; eloquence and dissimulation appear to he their hereditary 
qualities. They can stoop to flatter; but unless they arc curbed 
by the restraint of law they indulge the licentiousness of nature 
and passion, and in their eager search for wealth and dominion 
they depisc whatever they possess and hope whatever they desire. 
Arms and horses, the luxury of dress, the exercise of hawking and 
hunting are the delights of the Normans; hut on pressing occa- 
sions they can endure with incredible patience the inclemency of 
every climate, and the toil and abstinence of a militarv life." 

Their first exploit occurred in 1034, when Rainulf loaned them 
to the Greek Emperor for the invasion of Sicily. They com- 
manded five hundred Norman knights in the expedition. Meet- 
ing the Moslems in battle at Rametta, the latter were defeated and 
the Norman- invested Syracuse. The city was under the com- 

20 







AMALFI. ITALY 



rnand of the Moslem emir, and with him William Bras de Fer 
fought to the death in single combat. Brave as the bravest, and 
far stronger than other men, the Moslem had long been the terror 
of the Christians ; but his hour was at hand, and the vanguard of 
a race stronger than his was before him. lie fell before the walls 
of Syracuse, pierced by the Xorman spear, and his fall foreran 
by a few clays the surrender of the city. The tyranny of the Greek 
commander of the victorious army was, however, so outrageous 
that the Normans left him and returned to Aversa, vowing venge- 
ance on the Greeks, and thereafter the two nationalities were 
hostile to each other. The Xormans were as remarkable for the 
subtlety with which they could lead their enemies into a trap as 
they Mere conspicuously brave when forced to fight against odds in 
the open field. In conjunction with Ardoin, a Lombard, they con- 
cocted a scheme whereby Ardoin delivered to the Xormans the 
stronghold of !Meln, the key to South Italy, with the understanding 
that all conquests made should be divided equally. William and 
Drogo, accompanied by three hundred Xorman knights, followed 
Ardoin to fight in open warfare against the great Greek empire 
that still held a great part of Europe and Asia, and ruled over 
many millions of subjects. The compactness and suddenness of 
the assault made upon the territory of Melfi swept away all re- 
sistance, and they were masters of the place in a day. Quickly 
fortifying their prize they began extending their conquest, pil- 
laging Venosa on the south, liavello in the east and Ascoli to 
northward. Xone dared stand against them, and all people were 
amazed and terror-struck under their furious raids. 

But the Greeks quickly recovered from their surprise and, com- 
bining their forces, advanced to meet the Xormans with a great 
army near Venosa. The Xorman array was formed as a wedge 
and numbered only seven hundred knights and five hundred men- 
at-arms on foot, while the Greeks numbered thirty thousand. The 
latter were defeated with great loss. But seven weeks thereafter 
William and his troops were compelled to fight another great 
battle on the plain of Cannae, a field made memorable by the 
great victory of Hannibal over the Romans fifteen centuries be- 
fore. Again the Xormans were victorious. But. the Greeks were 
pertinacious, and, under a new commander and with fresh troops 
imported, they again attacked their adversaries on the same field 

23 



of Cannae in 1041. The Xormans numbered seven hundred 
knights, while the Greeks were ten thousand. William Bras de 
Fer was himself ill with a fever and sat on his horse at a little 
distance looking on. The Xormans, although fighting like lions, 
were slowly forced back by sheer weight of numbers, but dis- 
dained to fly. "Then William Bras de Fer, ill as he was, drew his 
great sword and rode at the foe for life or death ; and the Xormans 
took heart and struck ten times while the Greeks struck once, and 
hewed them in pieces on the plain, - ' and they captured the Greek 
general and brought him back to .Melfi. A few years later the 
Greeks sent over another army to destroy the Xormans, but Will- 
iam and Drogo quickly drove them back and besieged them in 
Tarento. The chronicler, William of Apulia, quoted by Delate, 
compares the maneuvers of William Bras de Fer and the Xormans 
before Tarento to the tricks of the serpent charmer endeavoring to 
lure a snake from its hole. But nothing availed, and the Xormans 
retired and proceeded with the conquest of the Duchy of Apulia, 
which they speedily overran and elected William Bras de' Fer as 
Count of Apulia, which office he held under the suzerainty of 
Bainulf of Aversa. 

After these events the De Hauteville brothers took part in the 
petty quarrels of the local rulers, always aggrandizing themselves 
at the expense of their neighbors. Bras de Fer had invaded 
Calabria and built a strong Xorman fort at Squillace, on the Gulf 
of Tarento, in sight of Sicily. After a few more petty battles, 
William, the elder brother, died in 104(j, after an active career of 
ten years in Italy. It is believed that he lies buried in the Church 
of the Trinity at Venosa, but no trace of his tomb exists at 
this clay. 

Drogo, who had been associated with William in the leadership, 
succeeded him, and received in marriage the daughter of Guaimar, 
Prince of Salerno, with a gTeat dowry. Soon after the Emperor 
Henry III of Germany marched into Italy and proceeded to hold a 
general conference for the settlement of Italian affairs. He con- 
firmed Drogo as Count of Apulia under his own immediate suze- 
rainty, thus releasing him from vassalage to the Prince of Salerno. 
The Emperor, finding fault with other of his South Italian sub- 
jects, turned them over to the Xormans for subjection. It is 
needless to say that this was quickly accomplished. Drogo carried 



out the plans of his brothers and enlarged his boundaries. Shortly 
afterwards his half-brother, Robert, arrived with a small force, and 
Drogo gave him a small tower in the mountains for a home. Later 
the two brothers were in apposition in some local squabble. Some 
time afterwards Drogo seized the town of Benevento, a feoff of 
the Pope, who became very indignant. But when he sent to pro- 
test he found that Drogo had been assassinated while attending 
mass at the castle of Montolio in Apulia, the occasion being a seri- 
ous uprising of the native Italians, which bad been fomented for 
the purpose of throwing off the Xorman yoke. Both Humphrey 
and Robert escaped the massacre and proceeded at once to avenge 
their brother's murder. They bound the limbs of the assassin and 
sawed them off one by one, and because the man still breathed they 
buried him alive. The rest of the prisoners they hanged, and this 
revenge somewhat allayed the grief of Humphrey; and Leo IX, 
who regarded Drogo as his friend, sang a mass for his soul that 
all his sins might be forgiven him. 

Afterwards Humphrey succeeded his brother as Count of 
Apulia. Shortly afterwards the Pope entered into a conspiracy 
with the Greek Emperor to get rid of the Normans, and in fur- 
therance of this plot Prince Gmiimar of Salerno was murdered by 
his brothers-in-law because he refused to antagonize the Xormans, 
who were his allies. But this foul wrong was quickly avenged by 
the Xonnans. The Pope and bis confederate Italians, Greeks and 
Germans advanced to Mount Gargano, where they met the De 
Hautevilles. Humphrey bad called out every fighting man in 
Apulia; Robert had brought up his wild Calabrian marauders, 
and' Richard of Aversa, their brother-in-law, was present with a 
body of men-at-arms. So small was their forces, however, that 
Humphrey attempted to compromise with the Pope, but the Pope 
would hear to nothing; except that the Xormans should quit Italy 
altogether. Of course, this was out of the question, and so the 
battle was joined June IS, 1053. Count Humphrey held the 
center, Richard with his cavalry took the right, while Robert 
Guiscard had the left wing. Humphrey had all he could do with 
the stout German men-at-arms, but Robert pushed back the Lom- 
bard line opposed to him, and gaining ground, was able to help 
his brother. At this moment Richard with his cavalry, having 
put to flight the Italian contingent, wheeled upon the German 



25 



rear, and struck the decisive blow. When the battle was over there 
was not a German alive on the field. The Pope was himself made 
prisoner. A conference was speedily held, in which the Normans 
made peace with their prisoner, and promised to be faithful to 
him and take the place of his soldiers whom they had slain. 
Count Humphrey himself led the Pope's bridle rein in the tri- 
umphal parade which ended the pageant attending the reconcilia- 
tion. 

Now about this time came from Normandy three more of the 
De Ilautcville sons, Geoffrey, a second William and Gerard; and 
Humphrey, to establish them in possessions, took Salerno from its 
rightful owner and gave it to William, and secured for Gerard 
some papal feoffs in Tuscany. lie then made war on Argyros of 
Pari and, defeating him, took his territory for his brothers. He 
also gave his brother Robert more lands in Calabria. Shortly 
afterwards he died and was buried with his brothers in the mon- 
astery of Venosa. He made Robert the guardian of his son, then 
a mere lad, but this sacred trust Robert completely ignored, and 
finally robbed his ward of his principal territory- A little later 
old Sieur Tancred de Hanteville died, and the remainder of the 
family, except Serlon, removed to Italy. This company included 
the widow and Margarita, Emma, Adclia, Humbert and two other 
brothers. 

Incidentally, it might be mentioned that William the Con- 
queror, while Duke of Normandy, owed his wife to the De Haute- 
villes. When William asked the papal sanction to his \mion with 
Matilda, sister of the Count of Flanders, the Pope, through the 
instigation of the French king, denied the privilege on political 
grounds. Put when the Normans in Italy, led by the De Haute- 
villes, defeated the Pope's forces and practically held the head of 
the church prisoner, the latter was constrained by his captors, the 
former subjects of William, to withdraw his interdiction of the 
marriage of the Norman duke and the Flemish heiress. Put for 
this fortunate circumstance how might the affairs of great coun- 
tries have been changed, since the support which William received 
through the subjects and wealth of his wife aided him very ma- 
terially in his expedition for the conquest of England. 

In the records of the great crusading Order of Knights Hos- 
pitallers of St. John it appears that that order was founded by 

2G 









.■..■■":*- -' 







ANCIENT JERUSALEM 



Thomasso Gerard, a member of the Norman family, who was born 
at Amalfi, southern Italy, in 1040. He was probably a son of 
the Gerard who was the friend and supporter of Robert Guiscard 
before mentioned. He in company with other participants in the 
first crusade organized the fraternity in the city of Jerusalem. 
Through the efforts of his family the citizens of Amalfi con- 
tributed liberally to its support until its organization was con- 
firmed by Pope Pascal II in 1113. 

NOTES. 

E. A. Freeman, the traveler, tells of searching for Hauteville lo 
Guiscard, and says ''that west of the village church is a round 
tower seemingly belonging to a gateway, suggests a chateau which 
has taken the place of a chateau-fort, and about this is an un- 
doubted ditch which may have been the moat. It is deep, it is 
four-sided, and it fences in a distinct plot of ground. The route 
from Coutances is northeast by the route nationale, about four 
miles; then we turn off on a route departmentale. Presently a 
gentle down rather than a gentle up brings us to a small village — a 
church with a saddle-bag tower and a few houses around it. This 
is Hauteville le Guiscard." The statues of the De Hauteville 
sons who became famous are set up in niches on the north side of 
the cathedral at Coutances. They are dressed in ducal or royal 
robes. The district of Coteutiu is a peninsula on the north of 
France projecting into the English channel. The name signifies 
the same as Coutances. 

Venosa, a town of Italy, province of and twenty-three miles 
northeast from Potenza, situate at the foot of Mt. Vulture. It 
has a former abbey founded in the eleventh century, noteworthy 
as containing tombs of Robert Guiscard and other De Hautevilles. 
Also an old castle, catacombs of ancient Jews. Birthplace of 
Horace the poet. The population in 1001 was S,423. 



29-i.o 






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(?*> '^> 



rmmm 



■iwsji.v: 



7 * : " ^Iifeil-;S 



-S2^?g371& 



ROBERT LE GUISCAED. 

IT WAS about 1047 that Robert, afterwards surnamed Guis- 
c-ard, the eldest sun of Sieur Tancred d'e Hauteville and his 
second wife, Margarite, arrived in Italy. Following is the 
portrait of Robert, as found in the writings of Anna Comnena, 
the daughter of Alexius, Emperor of Constantinople: "This 
Robert was of Xorman origin and of an obscure family ; he united 
a marvelous astuteness with immense ambition, and his bodily 
strength was prodigious. His whole desire was to attain to the 
wealth and power of the greatest living men ; he was extremely 
tenacious of his designs and most wise in finding means to attain 
his ends. In stature he was taller than the tallest ; of a ruddy hue 
and fair-haired; he was broad-shouldered, and his eyes sparkled 
with fire; the perfect proportion of all his limbs made him a model 
of beauty from head to heel, as 1 have often heard people tell. 
Homer says of Achilles that those who heard his voice seemed to 
hear the thundering shout of a great multitude, but it used to be 
said of Robert that his battle-cry would turn back tens of thou- 
sands. Such a man, one in such a position, of such a nature, and 
of such a spirit, naturally hated the idea of service, and would not 
be subject to any man; for such are those natures which are born 
too great for their surroundings." 

It is said that Robert, accompanied by five men-at-arms and 
thirty footmen, appeared before his brother Drogo, disguised 
under cowl and gown as pilgrims. Although not very welcome to 
his half-brothers, they took him in and gave him a tower in the 
mountains on their frontier, where he maintained himself in the 
profitable but precarious occupation of a robber chief. So the 



31 



beginning of his life was filled with much bloodshed and many 
murders. Another difficulty arising between the princes of 
Salerno and Capua, Drogo and his forces assisted the latter, but 
Robert antagonized his brothers. Robert's employer, however, 
failed in his rewards, and the Xorman promptly went over to the 
other side, and Drogo gave him a castle in lower Calabria, near 
the enemy's country, and overlooking the valley of the Crati and 
the site of the ancient Sybaris. If Drogo hoped that his wild 
young brother would not attempt to hold it, but would become dis- 
gusted and leave Italy, he misjudged a man far greater than him- 
self. Robert did, indeed, leave the castle, but only after he had 
won a better place up the valley on the famous rock of San Marco, 
where he established himself and led the life of a desperate ma- 
rauder. He suddenly improved his fortunes by matrimony. 
Being on his way to visit Drogo he met a Xorman kinsman of his 
named Gerard, who was the first to address him as Guiscard or 
'•'the wise." "0 Guiscard," said he, "why do you thus wander 
hither and thither '. Behold, now, marry my aunt, the sister of 
my father, and I will be your knight, and will go with you to 
conquer Calabria, and I will bring two hundred riders." In spite 
of Drogo's strong objections, Robert espoused the aunt, whose 
name is variously written as Adverada or Alberada, but years 
afterward he repudiated her. Gerard kept his word, and with 
his help Robert won castles and towns and devoured the land. 
After the death of Drogo and Humphrey, Robert became the head 
cf the family. About this time Roger, the youngest son of old 
Sieur Tancred de Hauteville, arrived in Italy, and asked for a 
part in the field of operations. By way of trying him Robert gave 
him sixty men and sent him mi an expedition, from which he was 
able soon afterward to send Guiscard a large sum of money in 
return. Soon a three-cornered fight began between Robert, Roger 
and the younger William of Salerno, during which the territories 
of Robert were much harassed by the younger brethren. The 
quarrel continuing, the natives picked up courage, revolted against 
the Xormans, who were in turn compelled to reunite for safety. 
Soon after this the brethren assisted in establishing Pope Nicholas 
upon the papal throne. Robert then continued his conquest of 
the south of Italy. About this time he repudiated his wife, by 
whom he was the father of an only son, Rohemond, who after- 

32 



wards became the famous crusader Bohemond. The occasion of 
his divorce was the relation of kinship with his wife, a papal bull 
having recently been promulgated forbidding all marriages within 
the seventh degree of consanguinity. He gave her splendid gifts 
and a good home, but almost on the morrow he sought the hand of 
Sigelgaito, the sister of the Gisulf whom Humphrey had ousted 
from Salerno to make room for young William llauteville. The 
marriage being completed, Robert in turn ousted his brother and 
put back bis brother-in-law. 

In 1060 Robert took Tarento, and, in concert with Roger, cap- 
tured Reggio. Robert slew in single combat a huge knight who 
defied all the Xormans together. Robert occupied the fortress. 
While Robert was operating in Sicily a Greek army landed at 
Bari, and driving back Robert, took nearly the whole country; 
however, on Roger's return, the brothers in turn drove out the 
enemy as quickly as they had advanced. In return for Roger's 
generous aid Robert helped him to conquer Sicily, and installed 
his younger brother therein. 

Again the Greeks organized a force to try to recapture Italy 
from Robert ; and his nephew, Humphrey's son, spurred by his 
uncle's neglect, joined the coalition. After some minor successes 
by the allies, Robert overcame them and drove them from the 
country. It took him over two years to recover by siege the 
fortress of Bari, being finally assisted by Roger. The next year 
he helped Roger capture Palermo, the last stronghold in Sicily 
to resist the Xonnan arms. Returning to Italy, Robert was taken 
violently ill, and the report was circulated that he was dead, and 
his wife had her son Roger crowned as duke. But he as quickly 
recovered. This was in 1073, and he was to live twelve years 
longer, during which time he shook the very foundations of the east- 
ern Roman empire, lie married his daughter to Raymond, Count 
of Provence, and received help from thence in his undertakings. 
In 10S2 he carried his war against the Greeks into Bulgaria, and. 
achieved some success, but was recalled to rescue the Pope from 
the Germans. Duke Robert went up from the south like a whirl- 
wind, drove off the enemy and burned half of Rome. The Ger- 
man emperor fled before him. Returning, he organized another 
expedition to the East, and landed at Durazzo. Here he was taken 
sick and died in July, 1084. His body was brought back and laid 

83 



beside his brothers nt Venosa. In a subsequent dispute between 
his sons Bohemond and Roger Bursa, Count Roger of Sicily took 
sides with his namesake, and the younger son was made Duke of 
Calabria, although his uncle robbed him of most of his territory. 
The young Roger lived but a short life and left a feeble son, 
William of Apulia, as duke in his turn, who died prematurely and 
without male issue. 



34 



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ROGER OF SICILY. 

THE island of Sicily had prior to the coming of the Normans 
been subject more or less to the Saracens for two hundred 
and thirty-six years, and the general character of its popu- 
lation had been much influenced by its Moslem masters. Within 
thirty years all this is changed, and the little island springs into 
an importance which she had not before enjoyed since the palmy 
days of the Roman empire. In fact, never before or after was 
the island so united or so independent. Some of the old tyrants 
had ruled out of Sicily; none had ruled over all Sicily. The 
Normans held all Sicily as the center of a dominion which 
stretched far beyond it. The conquest was the work of one man, 
a representative of one family, and that family the one in which 
we have an especial interest. 

Roger was the youngest son of old Sieur Tancred de Hauteville 
of Coutances, in Normandy, and full brother of Robert Guiscard, 
whose family we have heretofore traced in this history. Roger 
was born in the year 1030, and when barely twenty years of age 
followed his older brothers to Italy. He served his brother Robert 
for several years in his many adventures, and in this way per- 
fected himself in that trait of intelligent leadership and dashing 
valor which has so often distinguished members of this enter- 
prising family. In the course of these expeditions he had more 
than once clashed with Saracen pirates and freebooters, who, 
making Sicily their base of operations, harassed the mainland by 
continual attacks. 

In 1060 Roger prepared an expedition for the purpose of re- 
taliating upon the Moslem marauders, and invaded Sicily with 



37 



sixty men-at-arms and several hundred auxiliaries. His success 
gave the inhabitants the chance they had long desired, and they 
rose in revolt against their Saracen masters. In a short time 
Count Roger had obtained a permanent footing, which he never 
afterwards lost, and although it took him no less than thirty years 
to completely subjugate the island, this long time was probably 
owing to his being often called away to take part in the numerous 
enterprises of his brethren on the mainland, and in attempts upon 
the Eastern or Byzantine empire. 

The conquests of the Xormans in Italy and Sicily form part 
of one enterprise; but they altogether differ in character. In 
Italy they overthrew the Byzantine dominion; their own rule was 
perhaps not worse, but they were not deliverers. In Sicily they 
were everywhere welcomed by the Christians as deliverers from 
infidel bond age. Roger, the Great Count, died in 1101, and was 
succeeded by his young son, Simon, who died in 1105, after whom 
the inheritance fell to Roger, another son, who was crowned king. 
He inherited all Sicily, save half of Palermo — the other half had 
been given up — and part of Calabria. The other half of Palermo 
was soon acquired, and that city became the Xorman capital. On 
the death of his cousin, Duke William of Apulia, King Roger 
gradually founded (1127-40) a great Italian dominion. To the 
Apulian duchy he added (1130) the Xorman principality of 
Capua, Naples (1138), the last dependency of the Eastern empire 
in Italy, and (1140) the Abruzzi, an undoubted land of the West- 
ern empire. He thus formed a dominion which has been divided, 
united and handed over from one prince to another as often as 
any other State in Europe, but whose frontier had hardly changed 
at all until the unification of Italy under the house of Savoy. In 
1130 Roger was crowned at Palermo, by authority of the anti- 
pope Anacletus, taking the strange title of "King of Sicily and 
Italy." He died in 1154. 

Roger's son William, surnamed the Bad, was crowned in his 
father's lifetime in 1151, and his reign lasted till 11CG. It was a 
time of turbulence and domestic rebellions, and witnessed the loss 
of Roger's African possessions. He was succeeded by his son, 
William the Good, who reigned 11G6-S0 and marked the brightest 
days of his dynasty. He married Joanna, daughter of Henry II 
of England, but left no direct heir. He tried to secure the suc- 

38 



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TIBERIAS. PALESTINE 



cession to his aunt Constance and her husband, Henry VI of Ger- 
many ; but after his death the people rebelled and placed Tailored, 
the illegitimate grandson of Roger I, on the throne. Tancred was 
an associate of Richard Cour de Leon in the second crusade. On 
the death of Tancred (.ll'.'-t) his son, William III, succeeded, but 
Henry VI asserted his rights through his wife, and by force seized 
the entire kingdom. In 11!>7 he died, leaving it to his son Fred- 
erick, heir through his Norman mother. This king was crowned 
in 115)8. He afterwards became the celebrated Emperor Fred- 
erick II of Germany — "Frcdcrtcus stupor mundi et immutator 
nvirabil-is." After several other German Xorman kings, the crown 
fell to Manfred, who was defeated and slain by Charles, Duke of 
Anjou, in 1200. Sixteen years later the mainland possessions 
were separated from the island, on occasion of the uprising of the 
people in 12s2, and the frightful massacres known as the Sicilian 
Vespers. As a result, the insular kingdom passed into the hands 
of Peter of Aragon (Spain), husband of Manfred's daughter Con- 
stance, of Xorman blood. After a tumultuous period of many 
years the island came under the sway of Emperor Charles V of 
Germany, himself a descendant of the House of De Hauteville, 
and one of the most renowned sovereigns of Europe. 

NOTES. 

Ferdinand the Catholic, King of Aragon, under whose reign 
Columbus discovered America, was a descendant of Roger de 
Hauteville. 

In 1001 Roger married Judith or Erenberga, the great grand- 
daughter of Richard I of Xormandy, with whom he was in love 
before leaving France. Another strife occurred between Roger 
and Guiscard because the latter persisted in holding some towns. 
During the trend of hostilities it so happened that Robert fell into 
his brother's hands.; but again, on a threatened uprising of the 
natives, the Xormans were reconciled, and divided anew their 
territories. In further war in Sicily, Sirlou de Hauteville, 
nephew of Roger, was killed. 

About nine hundred years have passed since Tancred de Haute- 
ville dealt his famous thrust at the wild boar, and though his 
house gave Sicily no long unbroken line of kings, yet the blood 
of the Xorman gentleman is in the veins of almost every royal 
race in Europe. 

* 41 



ROGER de HAUTEVILLE- 
1030-1101 I 



Simon, his son 



TANCRED, illegitimate son, 
King of Sicily till 1194 



Roger, 1st King of Sicily, 
I died 1154 



William, the Bad, 
died 1166 



William III 

dispossessed by 

Henry VI 



Constance— Henry VI William, -Joanna 

of Germanv, the Good, dau. of 

conquered Sicily died 1189 Henry II 
from William III of England 

Frederick, crowned 1198, 

afterwards Emperor Frederick II 

of Germany, reigned till 1250 



Conrad, King of the Romans 

I . , 

Conradin, reigned 
till 1258, dispossessed by 
Manfred 



I 
Manfred 

Constance Pedro, King of Aragon 



Frederick, 

conquered Sicily from Charles, 

the French Usurper, and 

crowned 1296 



James, Alphonzo, 

King of Sicily, King of Aragon, 
afterwards King 
of Aragon 



Ferdinand, the Catholic-ISABELLA, Queen of Castile 
King of Aragon, and Spam, 

descendant of Frederick, benefactor of Columbus 
reigned 1479-1515 

Joanna- Phillip, of Austria, 

son of Maximilian, 

Emperor of Germany, 

who married Mary, 

Duchess of Burgundy 

Charles V,' Emperor of Germany, 

King of Spain, King of Sicily, King of Navarre, 

and Sovereign of the Netherlands, 1516-155o 



42 




BOHEMOXD, TITE CEUSADEK. 

MAEC BOHEMOXD, one of the leaders of the first crusade, 
was born in Capua, Italy, in the year A. D. 1056. He was 
the eldest son of Robert de Hauteville (Guiscard), Duke 
of Calabria and Apulia, and the only child by his first or Norman 
wife. When grown to manhood Bohemond is described by con- 
temporary historians as "a giant in stature, a Hercules in strength, 
a Ulysses in council." From 10S1 to 10S5 he served with his 
father in the latter's famous war to gain possession of the Eastern 
Roman empire, and which at one time bade fair to become a 
finality ; the Normans having twice defeated the emperor's forces 
in Thrace, and were thundering at the very gates of Constanti- 
nople when they were suddenly recalled to Italy to defend the 
Eope, who was besieged in his citadel by his subjects and the 
troops of the German emperor. The Xormans stormed the walls 
of Rome and after sacking the city relieved the Holy Father, 
whom they brought away to Capua. In 10S5 Robert Guiscard 
died, leaving Apulia and Calabria to a younger son, Eoger, while 
to Bohemond he gave only the small principality of Tarentum. 
A war between the brothers followed, in which Bohemond was 
supported by his cousin, Tancred, Prince of Otranto, and his 
uncle, Count Eoger of Italy. 

Bohemond and his uncle, Eoger of Sicily, and his cousin, 
Tancred of Otranto, were laying siege to Amalfi, when news came 
that innumerable Frankish warriors had started on their march 
to Jerusalem. Bohemond inquired of messengers: "What are 
their weapons, what their badge and what their war cry?" "Our 
weapons are those best suited to war; our badge the cross of Christ 



43 



upon our shoulders; our war cry *'Deus Vult! Deus Vult!' " The 
pity or cupidity of the Norman was aroused at this answer. lie 
tore off his own costly cloak, and with his own hands made of it 
crosses for all who would follow him in the new enterprise. His 
example proved contagious, and nearly all the knights offered 
their services to Bohemond, so that Count Roger returned to Sicily 
almost alone. With Bohemond went his cousin Tancred, destined 
in later days to be Lord of Antioch, and to find immortal honor 
in the great poem of Tasso, "Jerusalem Delivered." 

Bohemond crossed to Durazzo about the end of October, and 
two months later reached Castoria, where he spent Christmas, 
and then proceeded on his way to Constantinople. He seems to 
have been well supplied with provisions on the route and kept good 
order on the march. At Rusa, on the 1st of April, he received 
an invitation to Constantinople, and leaving his troops under care 
of Tancred, hurried forward with only a few attendants. Alexius 
knew Bohemoud's measure, and by the promise of a princely lord- 
ship in the confines of Antioch prevailed on him to take the oath 
of fidelity. 

Later, an attack having been made by Alexius' soldiers on the 
French crusaders, Bohemond gave himself as a hostage that 
Alexius would give compensation for the outrage. The first ex- 
ploit of Bohemond was in assisting in the siege and capture of 
Xiceae, after which they started to march to Antioch. For pur- 
poses of subsistence the army divided, one wing being composed 
of Bohemond, Tancred, Hugh of Yermandois and Robert of 
Normandy and their forces. At. evening Bohemond found his 
forces beside the little stream of Dorylaeum. The little army was 
encompassed by thousands of Turks upon the hills roundabout. 
The tents were pitched and the night passed in anxious expecta- 
tion, and in the morning the march was resumed. An hour or 
two later an attack occurred mi all sides. Bohemond ordered a 
halt, the baggage stacked and messengers dispatched to summon 
reinforcements. Then the knights dismounted, and Bohemond 
bade them be of good cheer, and keep the foe at bay while the foot- 
men guarded the tents. It was a day of heroic deeds : ''The very 
women were a stay to us," says Bohemoud's eulogi/.er, "for they 
carried water for our warriors to drink, and ever did they 
strengthen the fighters." At last, hemmed in by thousands of 

44 



./ 



- 



PALERMO, ITALY 



Turks, Bohemond himself was losing heart, and his men giving 
way, when Robert — mindful how his father turned the day at 
Hastings — bared his head to view and urged his comrades to stand 
firm. At this juncture the other Christian army came up, the Turks 
were driven off and victory was snatched from the jaws of defeat. 
Such was the fight of Dorylaeum, the first pitched battle between 
the crusaders and the Turks. Fable and superstition soon cast a 
halo around the fight, and it is now said "that two knights of won- 
derful appearance — St. George and St. Theodore — went before in 
the air and so affrighted the enemy as to leave them no chance of 
success." 

From Dorylaeum the crusaders plodded on. over the burning 
sands, through a waterless and uninhabited region, in which men, 
women and horses perished by thousands. At last issuing into 
the valleys of Iconium, they found plenty, and thence made their 
way to Antioch, where they arrived Oct. 21, 1097. 

Now Antioch was the strongest city in Asia Minor, and was at 
one time the third city in the Roman empire, the whole circuit of 
its walls enclosing four square miles. Bohemond's station among 
the besiegers was before the south wall opposite the citadel. A 
large army of Turks from the outside in turn beseiged the be- 
siegers, until the latter suffered greatly from privations. Then 
came news that another vast horde of enemies was advancing from 
the east. Bohemond's warlike spirit was aroused, and at his own 
suggestion he led forth one-half of the host to battle, while the 
other half maintained the siege. Starting early in the morning 
he surprised the Turks while encamped, but despite this advantage 
the fight at first went against the Christians, till the reserve under 
Bohemond's own banner restored the day. Then the Turks were 
routed, their camp plundered, and the besieging army relieved 
from want. So the war lingered for months until Bohemond 
managed to enter into communication with some officials within 
the walls and corrupted them to open the gates to his soldiers. 
Then the wily Norman secured from his associate leaders the 
.promise that if he could carry the scheme to success he should be 
given the principality for his feoff. This secured he advanced to 
the attack, the towers were stormed and the crusaders burst into 
the city. Bohemond's banners were flung to the breeze, and he 
assumed the command. Scarcely, however, had the army secured 

47 



the fortifications when the Turkish reinforcements appeared and 
began to besiege them in turn. The miraculous finding of the 
alleged spear which pierced the side of the Savior was made the 
occasion of inspiriting the Christians, and a sally of the whole 
army being undertaken under the lead of Bohemond and the other 
leaders, the attack proved successful, and the Turkish army was 
driven off with much slaughter. 

After the relief of AntioeL the crusaders spent the four hot 
months of summer in consolidating their authority over the sur- 
rounding country, and in November began their march toward 
Jerusalem. On November 28 Marra was assaulted by Raymond 
of Toulouse, but. unsuccessfully. On Bohemond coming up the 
attack was renewed successfully. Here another fierce quarrel 
broke out between the two leaders, and Bohemond returned to 
Antioch. After the capture of Jerusalem, Bohemond made a 
pilgrimage to the Holy City, afterwards returning' to his prin- 
cipality. A little later the ruler of Melitcne applied to Bohemond 
for help against the Mohammedans. Bohemond accepted, and 
while inarching along one day in careless confidence, without their 
armor, the Normans fell into an ambuscade, were defeated, and 
Bohemond taken prisoner, together with his cousin Richard, son 
of Humphrey do Ilautevillc. Alexius, the Emperor of Constanti- 
nople, always jealous of the vaulting ambition of Bohemond, 
sought to obtain possession of his person by ransoming him from 
his Turkish captor, bin the wily Norman outbid the Greek, and 
was restored to liberty in 110:3, becoming in consequence the 
sworn foe of the emperor. The next year he was called to aid the 
King of Jerusalem by making an expedition against the Turks 
at Damascus, in conjunction with other Christian counts. In a 
battle which ensued at llarran the crusaders were defeated and 
pursued to Edessa. The Turks and Greeks having united against 
Bohemond, he determined to turn over his principality to his 
cousin Tancred and return to Europe, there to organize an army 
of reinforcement. He departed in 1104. Going to France, he 
married Constance, daughter of Philip I, and with his wife's 
dowry and by bi> promises of rich feoffs to the nobles, he raised 
a large army, with which he crossed to Macedonia and laid siege 
to Durazzo in 11 07. Being unsuccessful, he returned to Italy 
and died in 1111, leaving two sons by his wife Constance. Of 

48 






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these John, the elder, died young-; the second, Bohemond, sur- 
vived to receive his father's principality of Antioch fifteen years 
later. In 1126 Bohemond II was called from Italy to take up 
the defense of the principality of Antioch. He was married upon 
his arrival to the Lady Alice, daughter of Baldwin IT, King of 
Jerusalem. His reign was short and troubled. ITe not only was 
engaged in war with the Turks, but with his Frankish neighbors. 
Some years later he was surprised and slain at the Meadow of 
Mantles in Cilicia. He was a youth of great promise and bade 
fair to he a valiant soldier. His dominion passed to his infant 
daughter Constance. A few years later this princess married Ray- 
mond, Count of Poiton, who maintained the independence of his 
territory till 1149, when he was slain in a skirmish, leaving a son, 
Bohemond III, by his Avife Constance. This third namesake of 
the great Norman ruled successfully until 1201, and was followed 
by his son, Bohemond IV. In 12GS the city and principality of 
Antioch, the last vestige of the Latin conquest in Asia Minor, fell 
before the wave of Turkish conquest, and the House of Bohemond 
became extinct as a reigning family on the mainland, though de- 
scendants of the family ruled Cyprus until 1324. 

NOTE. 

Godfrey de Bouillon, the commander of the crusaders, came in 
conflict with Bohemond on one occasion in a manner which shows 
the stubborn spirit of the De Ilautevilles. The story is related 
by Albert of Aix. "A superb Turkish pavilion which Baldwin, 
the new Prince of Edessa, had captured and sent to Godfrey as a 
present, was intercepted by an Armenian chieftain and dispatched 
as his own gift to Bohemond. Godfrey, accompanied by his 
friend, the Count of Flanders, paid an angry visit, to the quarters 
of Bohemond to demand restitution of the tent. The indomitable 
Norman refused compliance, and Godfrey complained to the coun- 
cil of princes. Bohemond was at last compelled to give up the 
disputed property. The whole scene may recall to mind some of 
the squabbles of the Homeric heroes." 



52 







FERDINAND THE CATHOLIC 




TANCRED, THE PEERLESS KXIIIT. 

WHEN Emma or Matilda, as she was severally known in 
Norman or Italian languages, the eldest daughter of old 
Sieur Tailored of De Hauteville, followed her brothers to 
Italy she no doubt did so for the purpose of assisting them in 
their endeavors to consolidate and enhance their dominions in 
the peninsula. Now in those tumultuous days about the only way 
in which a female could be utilized in furtherance of such objects 
was to allow herself to be given in marriage to some neighboring 
ruler and by the marital tie to bind him to his wife's relations. 
So we find that this step was accordingly taken, and Emma was 
bestowed in marriage upon Odo, surnamed the Good, Prince of 
Otranto. From this union sprang, among other children, the sub- 
ject of this chapter, Prince Tailored, the eldest son. 

Tancred as he grew up seems to have inherited all the good 
qualities of his Italian and Norman blood, while exhibiting very 
few of their bad traits. Douglass, in his "Heroes of the Cru- 
sades," says of him : "Gentle as well as chivalrous, kind to the 
poor and oppressed, Tancred was distinguished for all the en- 
during qualities that adorned knighthood in its most romantic 
and splendid days." He was, with his cousin Bohemond and his 
uncle, the great Count Roger of Sicily, engaged in the siege of 
Amain, when the message reached the army of the Christian up- 
heaval in favor of the redemption of the holy sepulchre from the 
hands of the infidels. It is needless to say that the Crusade stirred 
all the noble and chivalric instincts of his soul, and he was among 
the first to announce his intention to take part. He and Bohe- 
mond raised and equipped an army of ten thousand horseman and 



55 



fifteen thousand foot soldiers, with which they sailed from Brin- 
disi, landing; at Salonica in Thrace. From thence they inarched 
to Constantinople ; Tancred having charge of the army, while his 
cousin Bohemond, in answer to an invitation from the Greek em- 
peror, hastened forward to arrange for crossing the Hellespont. 
Upon the arrival of the army at the straits the emperor endeav- 
ored vainly to induce Tailored to swear fealty to him, and in 
order to escape the importunities of the wily Greek, he crossed 
into Asia with the vanguard of the army. It is recorded that of 
all the crusading host Tancred is the only sovereign prince who 
did not subject himself in some way to the will of the Greek 
ruler. 

He helped at the siege of Xicea, the first operation of the great 
army. Shortly afterwards he and Bohemond were engaged in the 
battle of Dorvlaeum, in which Tanered's brother, William, was 
killed, and Tancred was himself saved from death by the daring 
and courage of Bohemond. The timely arrival of reinforcements 
saved the cousins from defeat. At Malmistra, Tancred became 
involved in a quarrel with Count Baldwin of Flanders, and an 
action between their forces ensued. Tancred captured Tarsus 
after a sharp fight. At Antioch lie distinguished himself in the 
siege and capture of that city. It is related that during the siege, 
while the crusaders were suffering from famine and pestilence, 
the utmost despondency prevailed among the Christians; so much 
so, that even Peter the Hermit, the great originator of the cru- 
sades, and its evangelist throughout Europe, became discouraged, 
and attempted to escape to the coast. His flight created the utmost 
consternation among the superstitious masses, and the council of 
leaders decided to enforce his return. The mission was entrusted 
to Tancred, who overtook him and forcibly brought him back to 
camp. The monk's desertion was only pardoned by the council 
of indignant princes by his swearing never to abandon the holy 
expedition. 

"When the army, having recovered from the fatigues of the siege 
of Antioch and the defeat of the Saracen enemy, finally took up 
its march toward Jerusalem, Bohemond remained behind for the 
purpose of consolidating his power in his new principality, and 
Tancred was the only one of the Italian-Xorman leaders to con- 
tinue with the host. At the investment of the Holy City his forces 

56 







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PALAZZO DI PODESTA, FLORENCE 



were assigned to the eastern side, ami his headquarters were fixed 
upon the slopes of the Mount of Olives, from which he could over- 
look the city ramparts. He was one of the first of the crusaders 
to set his foot upon the battlements when some time later the city 
was stormed and captured. An episode which occurred during 
the sack of the city serves to show how much of a struggle poor 
human nature has sometimes to undergo in an effort to be honest. 
In the Mosque of Omar no less than seventy massive lamps of gold 
and silver were found by Tancred and surrendered to the pre- 
scribed uses of religion and charity ; but not, if we believe 
Malmesbury, before the costliness of the prize had seduced the 
hero, in a moment of unwonted frailty, to forget the usual purity 
of his virtue. lie attempted to conceal the spoils for his private 
profit until he was driven, by the reproaches of his conscience, to 
make restitution of his booty to the ecclesiastical treasury. 

After the establishment of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and the 
crowning of Godfrey de Bouillon as sovereign, all the remaining 
European princes who had taken part in the capture of the capital 
departed, leaving only Tancred as the new king's principal officer. 
He bravely upheld his former military prowess in sundry opera- 
tions, and in the battle of Ascalon with the army of the Caliph of 
Egypt he won a signal victory and broke the power of the Saracens 
in that quarter. He was endowed with the great feoff of Galilee, 
with the title of Prince of Tiberias, which he administered by a 
sub-governor, he himself remaining at the capital until the death 
of Godfrey, which occurred a year later. Tancred was from the 
first the closest friend of Godfrey, who esteemed him to be "the 
most perfect character of his day, both in military skill, kuightly 
honor and faithful regard for the public good." 

Upon the accession of the late king's brother, Baldwin of 
Flanders, to the throne, Tancred retired to his Galilean posses- 
sions, which he continued to rule with wise moderation until the 
capture of his cousin Bohemond by the infidels, when he repaired 
to Antioch and assumed control of that territory in March, 1101. 
He acted with a vigor characteristic of the old De Hauteville 
spirit of acquisition, "to desire what he did not possess." 

Laodicea was captured from the Greeks after a siege of eight- 
een months, and Malmistra, Adana and Tarsus were also recovered 
from the emperor, into whose hands they had lapsed. The era- 

59 



poror, aroused by these encroachments, endeavored to secure the 
person of the imprisoned Bohemond by bribing his Moslem captor, 
but Tancred checkmated his designs and bought his cousin's free- 
dom for two hundred thousand besants. With the latter's release 
more trouble occurred. Bohemond's turbulent spirit embroiled 
him with surrounding rulers, and at the battle of Ilarran the 
cousins were defeated by a confederacy and forced to take refuge 
in Edessa, and lost the territories which Tancred had lately won. 
At this juncture Bohemond departed for Europe with the inten- 
tion of securing reinforcements, an enterprise from which he never 
returned. This procedure left Tancred a free hand, which he 
speedily utilized. The people of Edessa chose him for their ruler, 
and he quickly reconquered all the possessions lost as the result 
of the battle of Ilarran, and became the greatest lord in all Syria, 
pushing his conquests to the gates of Aleppo and Damascus. lie 
continued his career until the year 1112, when he was wounded in 
a battle with the Moslems near Tell-basher on December 12th of 
that year. Thus perished the last and among the greatest of the 
chieftains of the first crusade. His disinterestedness in the cause 
of this remarkable enterprise of Christendom is shown in the 
last act of his life. He had married Cecelia, a princess of France 
and a most noble woman, and when he found himself about to 
die, being desirous of maintaining the bonds of common interest 
hetween France and the Holy Land, he caused bis wife to agree 
to marry Pons, Prince of Tripoli, grandson of Raymond of St. 
Gilles. ' 

While Antioch should by rights have gone to the young Bohe- 
mond, the times were too troublous for a child of five years to 
hold his own, and Roger Fitz Richard, the son of Margaret de 
Hauteville and Richard, Count of Aversa, was placed on the 
throne. 

Roger was called to Galilee by the King of Jerusalem, who had 
been defeated by the Saracens, and was besieged in the moun- 
tains. Roger's diversion released the king, and the enemy retired 
to Damascus. Shortly afterwards Roger obtained a great victory 
at Rugia and returned to Antioch laden with spoil, to the acclama- 
tion of the multitude: "Hail, Champion of the Truth!" His 
arms extended to the Euphrates. All went well till 1119, when a 
vast confederacy of Moslem emirs united in a joint attack upon 

60 



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WINDSOR CASTLE, TWO VIEWS 



the Christians. Roger, disdaining the sound advice of the patri- 
arch, marched out to the attack. His advance force was com- 
manded by Sir Manger, son of Geoffrey de Hauteville, who with 
forty knights held back the enemy for some time. But the latter 
swarmed everywhere and speedily surrounded the whole army. 
After fighting for hours in the very front of battle, Roger fell, 
pierced through the brain, at the foot of the banner of the Holv 
Cross — "his body to the earth, his soul to heaven" — June 27, 
1119. The affairs of Antioch were controlled by the King of 
Jerusalem until 1120, when young Bohemond arrived and as- 
sumed his inheritance. 

The principality of Galilee, with which Tancred was invested 
after the foundation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, comprised, 
besides the district proper, the land of Zoad beyond Jordan, and 
had Tiberias, or Tabarac, as capital. It contained many for- 
tresses, such as Safed, La Feve, Forhelet and Belvoir, and the 
towns of Nazareth and Scpphoris. 

Tasso, in his ''Jerusalem Delivered," thus apostrophizes the 
heroes of the crusade : 

"Baldwin he sees ambitiously aspire 

The height of human grandeur to attain, 
And Tancred, victim of a fruitless fire, 

Life's choicest blessings gloomily disdain, 

While Bohemond in Antioch builds his reign, 
And introducing arts and settling laws, 

The poise of his new kingdom to sustain, 
By power of solemn rite and custom, draws 
His Turks t' adore aright the Supernal Cause: — " 



63 - C 4 








THE IllSPAXO-XOTniAX-TUSCAX BRANCH. 

THE course of our history of the Wynne family, however, 
leads us in a different direction from that which we have 
followed in the preceding chapters of this model work. We 
must mention the. fortunes of Gerard, one of the elder sons 
of Sieur de Ilauteville, who, whether from a difference in disposi- 
tion or because the feoffs which he secured from the Pope through 
the influence of his elder brothers, lay so far away from the 
scenes of activity of his Norman compatriots that he was forced 
to fall in the ways of his Italian neighbors, and live a less turbu- 
lent and more prosaic life than his brethren in southern Italy, 
certain it is that we can find but little concerning him in contem- 
poraneous history. The position of podesta in Italy corresponded 
somewhat to that of keeper or governor. Certain it is that his 
family grew and flourished in Tuscany for many years, forming 
the feudal family of the Gherardini, one of the most important 
in Florence. In 1212 we find them allied with the Bnondelmonti 
and other families arrayed upon the side of the Guclph faction 
in internecine strife, and, being unsuccessful by reason of the 
German emperor siding with their opponents, the Ghibbelines, 
they were driven out of the city of Florence and retired to Pistoja, 
where they had a stronghold. In 1292 the family became in- 
volved in another factional fight, this time against the Bnondel- 
monti, and in the prosecution of the struggle again succeeded in 
establishing themselves in Florence as a member of the Bianci 
faction against the Xeri or Guelph party. 

In 1304 a disastrous fire broke out in the city, during one of 
the tumults which were of frequent occurrence, and almost wiped 



65 



out the Gherardini quarter of the city. In 130S the family had 
again changed front amid Tuscan politics, and we find Gherardo 
Bordoni in company with his old enemy, Corso Donati, fighting 
together furiously against the populace of Florence. Although 
largely outnumbered, the leaders and their adherents succeeded 
in fighting their way out of the city, but Gherardo was so griev- 
ously wounded that he died upon the bridge of Affrico, while 
Corso was captured and murdered. In 1332 we find Gherardino 
Spinolo rich enough to purchase the city of Lucca for three thou- 
sand florins from a company of German lanzncehts who had cap- 
tured it. The Florentines, however, disputed his purchase and 
finally dislodged him from the city. In 1352, however, we find 
the Gherardini again in Florence, still as insubordinate as ever. 
After an unsuccessful attempt to overturn the city government of 
the Ghibellines, Lotteringo Gherardini was accused, arrested and 
condemned to death, but by his influence and money he corrupted 
the authorities and the sentence was remitted upon payment of 
a fine. 

Gerard had married in Normandy, before coming south, and 
brought his family and household goods with the evident intention 
of making Italy his permanent home. His position and talents 
gave him an influence in the Tuscan state which enabled him to 
form matrimonial alliances of importance, and brought tinder his. 
leadership a clan which ultimately developed into a distinct fac- 
tion in the then social and political makeup of Italian affairs. 

In furtherance of this method we find that one of his daughters, 
Fngarrita, was given in marriage to Ofhero, a scion of an impor- 
tant family of Spanish or liasqne origin, who had come to Flor- 
ence several generations before, and who were allied by marriage 
with the De Aledicis, a family at that time obscure, but who lat- 
terly dominated Tuscany for several centuries. We give on 
another page the genealogy of this Spanish family, as far as his- 
tory lias left a record thereof. To his name Othero was prefixed 
that of Dominus, which would appear singular unless we con- 
jecture that the young man had been educated for the priesthood, 
but had, either at the call of love or inclination, forsaken that 
path, and preferred a state of matrimony and a more enlivening 
career in the secular world. Shortly after his marriage Othero 
and his wife gathered their few worldly goods together and started 

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out to seek their fortunes. They arrived in Normandy about the 
year 1050, no doubt revisiting the birthplace of the fair Engar- 
rita. Now at this time Edward the Confessor was King of Eng- 
land, and that monarch, though Saxon born, had been bred in 
Xonnandy, and had imbibed all those ideas of chivalry and ele- 
gance of which the Xorman-Ercnch people were pre-eminent in 
those days, and which were so sadly lacking among his Saxon 
courtiers. Certain it is that he encouraged Normans to immigrate 
to his country and gave them official positions and countenance, 
so that England was looked upon by the bold spirits of the main- 
land as the Eldorado in which to make or mend their fortunes. 
At any rate we find Dominus Other, our hero, safely domiciled 
in the island and already in position of a profitable office and 
some property near Windsor. In fact, he seems to have been 
appointed by the king superintendent of the great Forest of 
Windsor, then one of the great royal hunting grounds. But a 
very short time thereafter King Edward died, and leaving no 
direct heir, the throne was usurped by the Saxon earl, Harold, 
son of Godwin, who claimed on account of some old relationship 
in the line back to Alfred the Great. Saxon public opinion sup- 
porting him, Harold made short work of the foreign officeholders 
and quickly drove away all whom he could not capture and exe- 
cute. Our hero fled overseas and abode in Normandy. The duke 
of this country, William, had a claim upon the throne of England 
by right of birth, also by promise of Edward himself, as well as 
through the assent of Harold obtained before the death of Edward 
and while Harold was virtually a prisoner in the hands of the 
Norman. At any rate Duke William began to arrange for the 
invasion of England, and of course welcomed every brave man 
who was willing to join his forces. Suffice it to say that in 1060 
the invading army landed on the English shore, the battle of 
Senlac was fought and won by the Normans; King Harold being 
killed in the tight, which left William without a rival. When 
firmly seated on the throne William did his army justice for the 
chances they had assumed and the hardships they had undergone, 
and proceeded to partition the land among his officers. On this 
account our ancestor recovered his former possessions, to which 
much more Mas added, and he became one of the important per- 
sonages of the time. In addition to the care of the forest, Othero, 

68 



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PRINCESS NEST A 



or Other, as lie became to be called, was made castellan or governor 
of Windsor Castle, which was kept as a part of the royal demesnes, 
and obtained grants of freehold in several other counties of Eng- 
land. 

Othero's son, Walter, was born at Windsor, and married a lady 
named Beatrice, by whom he had five sons, William, Walter, 
Robert, Maurice and Reinald. By a later marriage he was united 
with Gladys, daughter of Rhiwallon, Prince of North Wales, by 
whom he had a son, Gerald. There may also have been daughters 
born of these unions, but we have not been able to find any his- 
tory thereof. 

Of the fortunes of these children and their descendants we find 
mention in the Doomsday Book and other sources. This so-called 
Doomsday Book is nothing less than a census of the landowners 
of England in the year lOSli, or twenty years after the Xorman 
conquest. To this is added the extent of each individual's posses- 
sions, and in fact a list of taxables due to the general government, 
with the liens, services and incumbrances thereon. In Doomsday 
Walter Fitz-Other appears as a tenant-in-chief in a compact block 
of counties: Berkshire, Bucks, Middlesex, Surrey and Hants. He 
also held Winchtield in Hampshire under Chertsey Abbey. At first 
sight there is not much to connect him with Windsor or its forest, 
but investigation reveals the facts that at Windsor itself he held 
on the royal manor one and three-quarter hides and some wood- 
lands; that at Knitbury, another Berkshire manor, he held half a 
hide "which King Edward had given to his predecessor" out of 
the royal demesne for the custody of the forest (propter forcstam 
custodiendam) ; that of the great royal manor of Woking in Surrey 
Walter held three-fourths of a hide, which King Edward "had 
similarly given out of the manor to a certain forester," and that 
in or near Kingston-on-Thames he had given land to a man to 
whom he had "entrusted the keeping of the king's brood mares 
(equas sylvaticas)." These hints prepare us for the evidence to 
which we are about to come, that he held a wood called "Bagshot" 
at the time of the survey (though Doomsday does not say so), and 
that he and his heirs had the keeping of the great Forest of Wind- 
sor. He was also, we shall find, Castellan of Windsor, while in 
his private capacity as a tenant-in-chief he hold a barony reckoned 
at fifteen or twenty knights' fees and owing fifteen knights as 
castle guard to Windsor. 

71 



Our next glimpse of him after Doomsday Book is afforded by 
the Abington Cartulary, which records in a most interesting entry 
that Walter Fitz-Other, Castellan of Windsor, restored to Abbot 
Faricius the woods of "Yirdelle" and "Bagshot," which he had 
held by consent of the abbot's predecessors, Aethelelm and 
Kainabl. It adds that he had made this restoration in the first 
place at Windsor Castle, and that he afterwards sent his wife 
Beatrice, with bis son William, to Abingdon, that they might con- 
firm what be himself had done "at home." From this entry we 
learn that Walter was living after A. D. 1100, for Abbot Faricius 
ruled the house 1100-10. We also learn that his wife's name, 
which had never, I believe, been rightly given before, was given 
as Beatrice, and that "his home" was Windsor Castle. Lastly, 
we may see, I think, an allusion to the loss, for the time, of these 
woods in the Doomsday entry of the abbey's manor of Winchfield 
(Wenosfelle), which mentions four bides are in the king's forest 
(p. 59) ; in other words, Walter, I suspect, had added them to 
Windsor Forest as its custodian ; and if he did this, as alleged, in 
the time of Abbot Aethelelm (who died 1084), they would be in- 
cluded in the king's forest at the time of Doomsday survey (1086). 

Walter was succeeded by his son William, of whom we have 
already beard. In 111G we find him confirmed by royal writ as 
the custodian of Windsor Forest. The invaluable Pipe Roll of 
1130 shows us William Fitz-Walter in charge of Windsor Forest 
in that and the preceding year. He farmed its profits from the 
Crown for a "census" of £13 a year (the same figures as are 
found under Henry II), out of which "the parker" was paid a 
penny a day; while £1, 6s, Od went in tithes to the Bishopric of 
Salisbury. We again meet with William Fitz-Walter in that 
charter of the Empress Maud or Matilda to Geoffrey de Mande- 
ville, which may be assigned to 1142 (Mandeville, p. 163). She 
grants therein to Geoffrey that William may have his hereditary 
constablesbip of Windsor Castle and lands. 

William was succeeded by a son, William, to whom King Henry 
II confirmed the lands of his father, William Fitz-Walter, and 
of his grandfather, Walter Fitz-Other. This William is con- 
stantly mentioned in the Pipe Polls of King Henry II as among 
those who supervised building operations at Windsor Castle. He 
married Christina dc Wilian, who was a tenant by knight service 

72 




Vj?s»w« ^^oCr^t-^^ IREI 



IRELAND 

In the 

Reijn of Beniy VII. 

EMI tfempimrfiuWn /rAi 

I J_ 



MAP OF IRELAND (Norman) 



on the Montfiehet fief, in 1166. By her he had two sons, Walter 
anil William. They divided the barony in 11 OS. Walter was the 
ancestor by a daughter of the Hodengs. From William, in whose 
share Stanwell was included, descended Andrew Windsor, created 
Lord Windsor of Stanwell by Henry VIII, from whom de- 
scended in the female line the present Lord Windsor. 

Robert, the second son of Walter Fitz Other, inherited from 
his father Little Easton, which was the head of a barony of ten 
fees, which was confirmed to him by Henry I, and winch was 
liable, like the fief of his elder brother, to castle guard at Windsor. 
William, the son of Robert, obtained a fresh confirmation of it 
from Henry II, and William's daughter and heir brought it to a 
Hastings. 

The next of Walter Fitz Other's sons was Maurice, called 
Maurice de Windsor. He was in high favor under Henry I, and 
held high office in his country. We find him excused his Dane- 
geld in the Pipe Roll of 1130, and thus learn that he held lands 
in no fewer than eight counties: Dorset, Essex, Xorthants, Nor- 
folk, Suffolk, Beds, Berks and Middlesex. The fact that Maurice 
died without issue is proved by the succession of his nephew, 
Ralph de Hastings, as his heir in lands and office. 

Of Reinald Fitz Walter no record has been found except the 
bare fact of his birth and christening. Whether he lived to ma- 
turity or died in youth, or whether he entered the priesthood and 
buried his real name under a clerical pseudonym (a practice com- 
mon at that time) will probably never be known. 

The next in order is Gerald de Windsor (or Fitz Other), the 
fifth son, who was half-brother to the foregoing, having had a dif- 
ferent, mother. Burke, the leading British genealogist, gives 
'"Gladys, daughter of Rhiwallon, King of Xorth Wales," as his 
mother. As our story follows the fortunes of this Gerald it will 
be well to enter into more details touching his movements. Xow 
about this time the Norman chiefs were pressing upon the Welsh 
borders in ever increasing numbers, each greedy adventurer seek- 
ing to carve out a domain for himself and his armed retainers. 
One of the principal nobles who engaged in these military cru- 
sades was Arnulph de Montgomery, son of that Roger, Earl of 
Shrewsbury, whose family overrun nearly the whole of South 
Wales. To protect his territory and hold it in subjection Arnulph 

75 



built castles throughout the laud, and ended by building an enor- 
mous fortress at Pembroke, in the extreme southwest part of 
Wales, where a convenient harbor insured his communication by 
sea. Now, among the knights who followed his fortunes was our 
ancestor, Gerald Fit/. Walter, and so fully bad he impressed his 
patron, both by his valor and his judgment, and by the exhibition 
of that same rare executive ability which before time won for his 
father and grandfather the superintendence of large affairs, as 
evidenced by their building of castles and administration of 
royal demesnes, he was chosen by Arnulpb to both build and 
captain Pembroke Castle. In the history of the Geraldines by 
Giraldus Cambric-nsis, Gerald is mentioned as the "constable or 
captain of Arnulpb cle Montgomery, who built the Castle of 
Pembroke and placed him in charge under William Rufus. The 
Brut tells us that in the early days of the reign of Henry I, Gerald 
was sent with others to Ireland by bis Lord Arnulpb to seek the 
hand of King Muscard's daughter for him and was successful. 
He seems to have become a favorite with Henry I, for \ipon the 
downfall of the family of Montgomery, wherein they suffered the 
confiscation of their estates, the king confirmed Gerald in his posi- 
tion of Castellan of Pembroke, and bestowed other favors upon 
him. His gallant and successful defense of that fortress during 
one of those great Welsh uprising wherein every other Norman 
castle in South Wales was captured by the native clans contributed 
not a little to the regard with which he was looked upon in court. 
In compensation for his heroism, and, we suspect, to strengthen 
his position in the Welsh country, King Henry I bestowed upon 
him the hand of the Princess Xesta, the sister of Griffith, Prince 
of South Wales, who, although at the time a fugitive dwelling 
abroad, was very puissant with his countrymen at home, and who 
afterward re-established bis authority over his hereditary do- 
mains. As the result of this union Gerald was enabled to enlarge 
his authority over a large part of the country, and regain for the 
Xornians much that they had lately lost. As Giraldus, the his- 
torian, puts it, "by whom the southern coast of Wales was saved 
to the English." Gerald obtained from the king certain grants a 
few miles inland from Pembroke, called Little Cengarth, where 
he built a new castle or summer home in the mountains; "there 
he deposited all his riches, with his wife, his heirs, and all dear 

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to him; and he fortified it with a ditch and wall, and a gateway 
with a lock to it." This was in 1105. 

Xext vear occurred the famous and tragic incident of the sur- 
prise of this castle by Owen, son of Cadogan, Prince of Powys, at 
night ; the narrow escape of Gerald, and the capture of his family 
and treasure. We can do no hotter than reproduce the following 
account of the episode, as illustrating the conditions surrounding 
life in that country during those times: 

"Xow this was about the year 110G, and Cadogan, who is among 
the outstanding princes of Welsh history, though he suffered va- 
rious fortunes, was keeping Christmas and holding a great Eistedd- 
fod in South Wales, to which everybody of distinction flocked. 
Among the guests came his son Owen, who lived in his father's 
second kingdom of Powys. Owen was a heady youth, passionate 
and selfish, and absolutely reckless when pursuing any object of 
his love or hate. Amid the revelry of his father's court he heard 
such rumors of the beauty of the Princess Xesta that he rode to 
Little Cengarth and. under the plea of a remote relationship, 
gained access to her presence. The lady was more beautiful than 
even his wildest visions had imagined ; and he at once formed a 
resolution which even for the year 1106 was a sufficiently au- 
dacious one. For, returning to his father's place, he collected 
privily a band of youths as reckless as himself, and under cover of 
night he returned and broke into the castle of Gerald, which he 
proceeded to set on fire, having first surrounded the chamber where 
Gerald and his wife slept. Gerald had just time to pull up the 
hoards in a cupboard and escape down a drain, while his wife and 
her two children were seized and carried off by Owen and his 
companions, and brought in hot haste across Wales to Powys, 
where, according to tradition, they were secured in the inaccessible 
seclusion of Eglwyseg. Great, indeed, was the uproar. Poor King 
Cadogan came all the way from South Wales to entreat his son 
to restore the wife of Gerald — Henry's prime favorite and Con- 
stable of Pembroke. Xothing, however, would stir the headstrong 
Owen, though he did at last consent to send back the children. All 
Wales was set by the ears, while Henry raged upon his distant 
throne and started the whole border machinery to wreak ven- 
geance on everything belonging to poor Cadogan, who, of course, 
was entirely innocent of offense. Every Norman baron who had 

79 



got a footing in South Wale? saw in the general confusion a chance 
to enlarge it. Owen fled to Ireland, Cadogan was stripped of 
Powys by a rival Welsh family, and of much of South Wales. 
Princess Xesta was finally restored to her husband, and the seeth- 
ing country, after two or three years of war, settled down again 
to one of its brief periods of what in those days passed for peace. 
The episode closed in a fashion truly dramatic, and not the less 
characteristic. It fell out that Owen, who with Ireland at his 
back, never ceased from troubling Wales, was making a foray into 
that country upon the same side as the man he had wronged. To 
be strictly accurate, it was Gerald who first discovered the situa- 
tion, and regardless of the common cause — not one of principle, 
we may be sure — in which they were both engaged, at once sought 
out his ancient enemy. A fight to the death ensued, in which the 
riotous Welsh prince fell by the hand of the Xorman baron he had 
in earlier years so infamously injured, and now for the first time 
met face to face." 

Behind the old stone Fortress of Eglwyseg is a deep glen, through 
which a narrow trail winds over rocks and heather and woodland, 
which is still named after this son of Cadogan, and through which 
he came bearing the fair '"Helen of Wales" after his wild adven- 
ture at Pembroke. 

Before leaving the subject of Pembroke we quote the following: 
"Armdph dc Montgomery conquered Pembroke, called 'Little 
England beyond Wales,' in the eleventh century. He landed 
where the town now stands. Gerald de Windsor became his 
deputy or constable, and William Rufus the king came to help 
in the invasion. So when the castles were built it became crown 
property with He Windsor as governor. English colonists settled 
there, to whom were added Dutch refugees from the terror of the 
Spanish tyranny in the Xetherlands. These colonists did not 
amalgamate with the Welsh to any great extent, and are to-day 
perfectly distinct. Pembroke Castle was one of the largest and 
strongest fortresses in the whole kingdom, and still shows noble 
ruins. It stands upon a roeky promontory in an inlet of Milford 
Haven. It has withstood many sieges and was never taken, except 
by Cromwell in the civil war. It was the birthplace of 'Henry 
VII, the first Welsh king of England, and head of the House of 
Tudor. It was also the birthplace of Maurice Eitz-Gerald, one 

80 



of the ancestors of the Wynne family." Many of the buildings in 
part survive, and the round keep still lifts its eighty feet of ma- 
sonry intact ahove the ground. 

Here our Gerald lived with his beautiful Welsh wife and reared 
those children who were destined to achieve such prominence in 
later years. lie had three sons, William, Maurice and David, and 
three daughters, Moinea, Agnes and Angaretta. Of Gerald's death 
we have no precise mention, but presume that it must have been 
prior to 1 1 1 0. 



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SHREWSBURY CASTLE. 




ROYAL WELSH. 



THE royal family of Cunedda was the dominant family in 
all Wales since the dawn of authentic history ; and, in fact, 
they come to us strikingly distinct from the darker and more 
intricate shades of old Cambrian legend and mythology. The head 
of the house rose to greatness as soon as the Roman power began 
to decline — about the end of the fifth century. The chief scat of 
their power was at Deganwy, now a desolate and insignificant ruin 
overlooking the thriving seaside resort of Llandudno, but still com- 
manding views of seas and islands over which the kingly progeni- 
tors of the Wynne family once held sway. 

Maelgwn, one of the first noted members of the family, was a 
vigorous monarch, ami was the pioneer in efforts to restore the 
union of Welsh septs, which bad been much disintegrated by 
Roman policy, and which had fallen into complete anarchy when 
once the guiding band of Rome was withdrawn. He bound his im- 
mediate neighbors in a league, created a navy with its base at 
Mons, and from Deganwy he advanced southward, forcing the in- 
dependent kinglets to recognize bis paramount lordship. Tradi- 
tion tells us that on one occasion he invoked a council of chiefs at 
Aberdovey, whereat they sat in their chairs upon tbc seashore to 
consider affairs of state. Concerning the question of who should 
be king of all Britain, they decided that he who could sit longest in 
his chair despite the rising of the tide was to rule over them. Now 
Maeldav the Old had prepared for Maelgwn a chair made of 
waxed wings, and it floated after all the other chairs had been 
thrown down. 



Maelgwn was an ambitions and not over scrupulous sovereign, 
and although the general effects of his reign were beneficent and 
served to amalgamate the turbulent tribes and insure the final tri- 
umph of Christianity in its long struggle with heathenism, yet 
Gildas the priest thundered against him from the text: "Woe to 
thee that spoilcth, shall thou not be spoiled I" Maelgwn died of 
the yellow plague about the year A. D. 550. The influx of the 
Saxons and the Angles from the east during the latter part of his 
reign, cut away a large portion of his dominions, confining their 
limit under his heir, Cadwallon, who struggled long and desper- 
ately against overwhelming odds, and at last died fighting near the 
Great Wall in 025. 

His son Cadwaladr succeeded to a vanishing crown, a distracted 
country and a plague-stricken people. At about this time the 
Arthurian legends Ik gan to arise and assume the forms which tra- 
dition has brought down to modern times. With the death of 
Cadwaladr the struggle for the recovery of northwestern England 
and the chain of fortresses which united the Cymbrian of Wales 
with the Piet of Scotland was given up forever. During the next 
succeeding centuries the struggle was to retain the supremacy of 
the family over the tribal chiefs. For half a century this pre- 
dominance was in abeyance and the princes were practically inde- 
pendent. But with the rise of the Mercian kingdom on the east 
under Ethelbald the Welsh turned to Rhodri Malwynod, the grand- 
son of Cadwaladr, for- protection. With varying success he in the 
main held his own, and beat back the Saxon wolves who in ever 
increasing numbers were investing him by sea and land. 

This king died in 755, and, unfortunately, left two sons, Conan 
and Howell, who fought against each other, decimating their 
strength, to the advantage of Offa, the Mercian king, who ex- 
tended his dominion over considerable Welsh territory. He built 
a famous dyke from the mouth of the Dee to the mouth of the 
Taff to mark his boundary. The remains of this dyke can still 
be followed. Offa's son, Cenwulf, still further harried Wales, 
breaking through to Dyved, in the south, and in the north as far 
as Snowdon, burning the royal city of Deganwy, the old home of 
Gwynedd. In the midst of these tribulations, to which was added 
the fierce incursions on the seaside by the Xorse pirates, Conan 
died in 815, and was speedily followed to the grave by his brother 
Howell. 

86 



,e^ O0s~t,fiy 




°VL*f«- od.'.S.'*"" \*5a'.,>.,0^ 







WALES. 

7o //lustrafr Me Aforman Conauest 

D Aorman fastis 
* A6ieys or Pr/oncs 



MAP OF WALES (Ancient) 



Conan left a daughter as heiress, whose husband, Merwin — a 
blood relative — ascended the throne as the sole representative of 
the family of Maelgwn. Merwin struggled with varying success 
against the waning power of Mercia, which kingdom was in turn 
attacked upon the east by the rising power of Wessex. In 844 
Merwin was succeeded by bis son, Rhodri, surnamed the Great, 
a cotemporary of the Wessex king, Alfred the Great. 

Rhodri united his tribes and defeated the Danes in a great 
battle, killing Horni; their leader. He became all-powerful 
throughout the length and breadth of Wales, and partitioned the 
country among bis six warlike sons as governors under him. But 
a powerful combination of Xorsc foes began their march south- 
ward from Xorthumbria, and their advance proved irresistible 
both to Welsh and Saxon. In STG Rhodri was a fugitive in Ire- 
land, and in 87S Alfred was in hiding among the fastnesses of 
Athelney. Rhodri compromised his affairs with the invaders, and 
came back as their ally; but in ST7, while the Danes had thrown 
their whole force against Alfred, a Mercian irruption extended as 
far as Mons, and there, in a great battle for which they were un- 
prepared, both Rhodri and his brother were slain. 

Rhodri's sons soon avenged their father's death at the battle of 
Conway, and by alliance with Wessex they drove out both the 
Dane and the Mercian. A lull in the foreign attacks was speedily 
followed by revolts of the tribal princes ; and Anarawd, son of 
Rhodri, had to chastise the princes of Ceredigion and Istrad Towy 
and the whole south country. Finally Anarawd, Cadell and ATero- 
wyn, the surviving sons of Rhodri, entered into an alliance with 
King Alfred and gave up their Xorthumbrian allies. Anarawd 
and Cadell died in the beginning of the tenth century, shortly after 
the death of Alfred the Great. 

One of the sons of Cadell was Howell, who became the great 
lawgiver of AVales, as Alfred was the lawgiver of Saxon England, 
and as Charlemagne had become the lawgiver of France. He was 
not a great prince, and lie ruled with his brothers in Dyved. The 
only present copies of these laws were written three or four hun- 
dred years after their compilation by Howell, and before any great 
alterations were made. They give us a bewitching mass of pictur- 
escpio customs — many showing the old states of society, and some 
showing the beginning of a new order. The old svstem was tribal 



and exceedingly clannish — in fact, patriarchal. At the head of 
the whole system stood the king paramount, the head of the family 
of Gwynedd, who ruled at Aberffraw; to him, alone, was gold paid 
as tribute. Then came the King of South Wales, at Dynevor or 
Dyved; next, the King of Powys or East Wales, at Mathravd. 
Each of these divisions has a version of its own of the code drawn 
up by Howell. 

"In the great hall of Aberffraw the king was inviolable; the 
violation of his protection, or violence in his presence, could only 
be atoned for by a great fine — a hundred cows, a white bull with 
red ears, for each cantrev he possessed, a rod of gold as long as 
himself and as thick as his little finger, and a plate of gold as 
broad as his face and as thick as a ploughman's nail. His sons, 
nephews and any relatives he chose to summon surrounded him, 
and could make free progress among his subjects. Of the great 
officers, the chief of the household came next to the king ; he was, 
above all others, the executive officer of the court. The chief judge 
occupied at night the seat occupied by the king during the day, so 
that justice should always be obtainable. The duties ami privi- 
leges of all the members of the king's retinue are minutely de- 
scribed; such ;ts those of the chief falconer, who had to lodge in 
the king's barn, lest the smoke should affect the hawks' sight, but 
who gnes on progress like a king among the king's villeins; or those 
of the bard of the household, who is to sing to God and to the 
king, and to receive royal gifts; or those of the king's huntsman, 
who needs not swear, exci pt by his horn and leashes, and who 
could not be forced to answer any claim unless cited before he 
puts his boots mi in the morning; or of the medieiner, who is in- 
violable while attending the sick, who gets his light at night, and 
his regular fee for herb and red ointment and blood-letting; or 
those of the unpopular summoner, whose spear was not to be more 
than three yards long, lest his approach should be discovered, and 
who got a sieve of oats and an empty egg shell as damages if he 
was attacked while sitting in court instead of standing. 

"Some had exceedingly simple duties, like the hereditary foot- 
holder of the king, or the royal candle-bearer. Others had much 
to do, like the door-ward, whose difficult and miscellaneous duties 
were an excellent training fur the passages of wit between him and 
the strangers who demanded or begged for leave to pass through 
the gate."' 

90 



.._ .. ' " ' r ~ n : ' 



I 






A GLIMPSE OF SNOWDON. WALES 



Under the king, owing tribute and service to him, were the 
tribal groups. Sometimes they would be governed by a son or 
nephew or brother, whom the king chose to set over them. The 
tribal chief was a king in miniature — he represented bis people; 
he was advised by an elected chief of the household, and helped 
by the avenger, who led the tribe during a blood feud; be pre- 
sided over the tribal court; he admitted youths to their tribal 
rights, and he was the intermediary between the king and the 
tribe. 

The land was tilled by family groups, who remained together 
to the third generation, when the land was redivided by the process 
of gavel-kind, and new homesteads formed. Residence in the 
family household — the big hall built around a hearth where the 
fire never died out — carried with it a share of the family land, 
and the privileges of a governing class. For there was a subject 
population, who paid tribute to the free tribesmen, who had no 
pride of kin, and into whose community strangers were readily 
admitted. 

Howell was more of a legislator than a general. His reign was 
a turbulent one — what with the revolt of the princes, and the rav- 
ages of Saxons, Norsemen and Danes — his kingdom was well-nigh 
-ruined when the old king passed away, and his grandson, Mere- 
dith, alone of the race of Rhodri, took up the reins of government. 
His rule was short and troubled, and he was compelled to buy 
peace of the Danish pirates who harried his country. 

At his death his daughter, Angbarad, was the only represent- 
ative of the direct ^iaelgwn family remaining. Her husband, 
Llewelyn ap Seisyl, proved to be an able sovereign, and quickly 
put down all opposition both from within and without; and it was 
said of him, "bis kingdom from sea to sea was full of men and 
cattle, with no poor in it, and no devastated region." Hut this 
was only for a time, and before the old man died he was destined 
to see bis fields harried by the Norse, his churches aflame and his 
princes in revolt. He died in 1022. Angharad's son, Griffydd, 
was driven from his country, which became a prey to internecine 
strife until 103S, when bis people called him back, and he quickly 
drove the invaders out and restored peace. 

He enjoyed prosperity until he came into conflict with King 
Harold of England, who invaded his kingdom and secured his 

93 



assassination. Harold ruled Wales only a short time, as be soon 
after was overthrown by William the Conqueror at the battle of 
Senlac, an event which introduces the Norman supremacy into 
English history. 

The half-brothers of Griffydd, Bleddyn and Rhywallon, whom 
Harold appointed to govern Wales, set up as independent kings, 
and after defeating and killing Meredith and Ithel, sons of Grif- 
fydd — in which battle Rhywallon also fell, Bleddyn became sole 
Prince of Powys and Gwynedd, although his authority was dis- 
puted in South Wales. But soon the Normans swarmed into 
Wales and in the end subjugated it. Bleddyn fell, and shortly 
afterwards his nephews, who succeeded him, suffered the same 
fate. 

The destinies of the family then reverted to Griffydd ap Conan, 
living in exile on the Irish coast, and tracing direct lineage from 
Rhodri and Maelgwn. lie made several attempts to recover the 
kingdom, but without success, until at last be fell in with another 
fugitive king, Rhys ap Tudor, the heir of Debeubartb or South 
Wales. "'Like Griffydd himself, Rhys was of the race of Mael- 
gwn; Griffydd came from Anarawd, son of Rhodri; Rhys from 
Cadell, son of Rhodri. The home of Rhys' family was Dynevor, 
which stands on a green knoll that rises abruptly from the lovely 
valley of the Towy. After the death of Bleddyn, the usurping 
over-king, the vengeance of Trahaiarn had caused the flight of 
the royal race from Debeubartb. Among them was Rhys ap 
Tudor, who spent some years of exile in Brittany. He had tried 
to regain bis kingdom, but had to face an alliance of enemies — 
Meilir of Powys, Trahaiarn of Arwystli, and Carodac of Gwent 
and Morgamug. He finally took refuge at St. David's, on the 
extreme western part of Wales. 

The two princes, Rhys and Griffydd, made common cause, 
and, uniting their clansmen, marched against Trahaiarn. The 
bitter's forces hurried down, like the many streams from Plin- 
limmon, to meet the invaders, and somewhere in South Ceredigion, 
in 107'.', the forces met in the decisive battle of Myvedd Cam. 
The two-edged battle axes of the Danes, the long spears of the 
Irishmen, the irresistible march of the men of Gwynedd behind 
their shining shields, and the valor of the princes themselves won 
the dav. Trahaiarn fell in the heat of the battle, and the scattered 









J 

CORWEN AND VALLEY OF THE DEE 



an Irish fleet of twenty-three sail, and recruited a considerable 
army. He captured the island of Mons, now termed Anglesey, 
and from there ravaged the coast both east and south. After de- 
livering the country beyond the Conway, Griffydd married An- 
gharad, daughter of a chieftain of that country. "Tall and 
stately was she, with fair hair and large blue eyes; wise of counsel, 
very liberal of drink and food and alms." 

Meanwhile the anti-Xorman revolt spread into other provinces 
— from Powys to Dyved. Cadogan, son of Bleddyn, a branch of 
the House of Maelgwn, had stepped into Rhys' place, and in 
1094 all the castles of Dyved had fallen except that of Pembroke, 
which was kept by the skill and artifice of its castellan, Gerald 
of "Windsor, whose genealogy from this time forward intermingles 
with that of the Wynne family, and has been more minutely de- 
tailed in a former chapter. 

In 1095 Cadogan stormed the Castle of Montgomery, and defeated 
a Xorman army who tried to retake it, and this success brought 
King William Rufus to Wales. Two armies pierced to Snow- 
don, but were driven back by storms. Several times the Red King' 
harried the land, but unsuccessfully, and when he returned to 
AVindsor the only Welsh castle in Xorman hands was Pembroke, 
held by the redoubtable Gerald. So the king left to the earls of 
Chester and Shrewsbury the task of bridling the Welsh. The 
latter earl made an alliance with the sons of Bleddyn and en- 
trusted much of his wealth to their keeping what time he broke 
with Henry I and refused to appear at court. Henry promptly 
attacked and overcame him, and skillfully drew Iowerth from his 
alliance with Shrewsbury. Afterwards both Meredith and Iowerth 
were imprisoned by Henry, leaving what territory still remained 
to the Welsh under the dominion of Griffydd ap Conan, and Cado- 
gan, the remaining son of Bleddyn. Shortly thereafter the race 
of Bleddyn was driven from power, and practically exterminated, 
whereupon the elder branch of the Mielgwns recovered their 
rights. 

When Rhys ap Tudor fell in battle in 1093, and his daughter 
Xesta was held in ward by the English court, his young son, Grif- 
fith, was carried by his kinsmen to Ireland for safety. After 
awhile he came back, living sometimes with his sister Xesta, the 
wife of Gerald, at Pembroke, and at other times with Griffydd ap 

98 



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HARLKCH CASTLE, WALES 



Conan, in Gwynedd. The King of England tried to secure his 
person to prevent his heading a revolt, and he escaped to North 
Wales. Here Henry sought to bribe Griffydd ap Conan to give him 
up, which the Welsh king refused to do. But young Griffith sought 
sanctuary in the church at Aberdaron; thence fled to the vale of 
Towy, where he organized an army, and, using the forest as a base, 
proceeded to attack the Norman castles. Narbearth, Llandovery, 
Swansea and Carmarthan were attacked successfully, and Kid- 
welly was abandoned; while the whole of Ceredigion rose at the 
prince's call. To meet this new uprising Henry recalled Owen 
from France and sent him to Wales to offset Griffith's growing- 
power. One night, while Owen and his escort were pursuing a 
number of mountaineers, he fell in with Gerald of Pembroke and 
a company of Flemings. Gerald, learning that his old enemy, 
Owen, was in command of the other party, fell on with fury, and 
in the melee met Owen and dispatched him with his own hand. 
Thus ended the career of one whose turbulent but vacillating 
spirit had done much harm to the fatherland. He was absolutely 
a man without honor. 

At this time nearly the whole of Wales was governed by princes 
of the old royal race — ancestors of the Wynne family. Griffydd 
ap Conan was the eldest, and was firmly fixed in Gwynedd ; 
Meredith, the younger son of Eleddyn, grew powerful in Powys, 
and on his death in 1132 divided his territory between his sons 
Madoc and Owen Cyveiliog. Griffith ap Rhys married Gwenllian, 
daughter of Griffydd ap Conan, and extended his power in the 
south. On the death of Henry I he grew bolder, and a league of 
Norman barons was formed against him. While he was away 
arranging for aid from his father-in-law the Normans defeated 
his army, led by his wife, and afterward beheaded the heroic 
woman while a prisoner. But the two Griffiths quickly wiped out 
the defeat by completely overthrowing the Normans in the vale of 
Towy — a battle in which the sons of Gerald were antagonists of 
their Welsh uncle, Griffith. This victory was followed by the 
speedy reconquest of much of the land on which castles had been 
built. 

But in the next year, 1137, Griffydd a]) Conan and Griffith ap 
Khys both died. The former is described as the "sovereign and 
protector and peacemaker of all Wales," while the latter is de- 

101 



scribed as "the light and the strength and the gentleness of the men 
of the South." GrifFydd ap Conan after a checkered and turbulent 
youth had turned statesman, and by patient effort bad consolidated 
his kingdom so that it remained to his descendants intact for more 
than a century and a half after his death. With the union of the 
separate branches of the Welsh stock it seemed as though the peace 
and prosperity of the country was assured. Griflydd ap Conan left 
two sons, Owen Gwyuedd and Cadwalader, while Griffith ap Rhys 
left four lusty sons, the eldest of which — Anarawd — was pledged 
in marriage to one of the daughters of Owen Gwynedd. But this 
bright prospect only lasted for a brief season, and was destroyed 
by an act of sudden violence as unexpected as it was disastrous. 
This was nothing less than the murder of young Anarawd by 
Cadwalader during a dispute about boundary. The popularity of 
the young man, the imminence of his wedding day, the trust he 
placed in his northern cousins, added to the universal horror at 
Cadwalader's hasty deed. Owen Gwynedd had to choose between 
his own red-handed brother and the wronged young prince of the 
house of Griffith. lie did not hesitate, but sent his sons, Howell 
and Conan, to drive Cadwalader out of the country. This act 
made the latter a determined and reckless foe, both to his kinsmen 
and country, and he proved a veritable firebrand where he had 
before been a loyal supporter. 

But Owen's sons were men of dauntless courage and made head 
against the Norman barons and their uncle's inroads, while as- 
sisting the young princes of the south against the English lords, 
and aiding Madoc ap Meredith against Ranulf of Chester. In 
1152 Owen's dream of Welsh unity again seemed to be realized. 
His over-lordship was generally recognized; but, alas, it came too 
late. The English civil war ended with the peaceful accession of 
Henry IT and this was quickly followed by the renewed Norman 
supremacy in Wales. 

NOTES OX WELSH MATTERS. 

Glan Bran, in the valley of the Towy, Breeonshire, was once a 
seat of the Wynnes. 

Near Llandilo, in the Towy valley, is the great rock of Dynevor, 
surmounted with the old fortress of the same name, whose history 
dates back to 870, when it was founded by "Rhodri Mawr," or 

102 



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CARKW CASTLE. WALES 



Roderick the Great, who was king of all Wales as far east as 
Salisbury and Chester. For many years his sway was undis- 
puted, and at his death the kingdom was divided into three parts 
and given to his three sons. These divisions gave rise to the king- 
doms of Gwyncdd ( Xorth Wales), Powvs (mid-Wales) and 
Dehenharth (South Wales). Of these, Gwynedd (Land of the 
Wynnes) was recognized as paramount, and received a shadowy 
sort of deference from the others only so long as her rulers could 
enforce it with bill and sword. 

The laws of Howell Dda were made in the tenth century and 
deposited in Dynevor. He was grandson of Rhodri and Prince 
of South Wales. The laws fixed the price of the smallest article 
of trade, and regulated styles, manners and customs, besides pro- 
viding graduated penalties for every sort of public or private of- 
fenses. 

In one of the collections made of the songs of the old Welsh bards, 
appears the following chant improvised upon the deeds and death 
of one of the chiefs of the old family of Wynnes. It is the work 
of Llywarch Hen, who, next to Taliesin, was probably the greatest 
of his fraternity. The ode dates back to the sixth century. Much 
of its weird beauty and pathos is lost in the translation. It de- 
scribes the death of the poet's patron, Cyndyllan, who, with his 
twenty-four stalwart sons, fell in battle with the Saxon invaders at 
the ford of Glorias. Here it is in part: 

"The house of Cyndyllan is gloomy this night 
Without fire and without song. 
Roofless and dark it stands, an open waste, 
That was once the resort of strong warriors. 
Without, the eagle screams loud, he has swallowed fresh drink, 
Heart blood of Cyndyllan the fair. 
The house of Cyndyllan is the seat of chill grief, 
• Encircled with wide-spreading silence. 

Lovely it stands on the top of the rock of Hydwyth, 
Without its lord, without guests, 
Without the circling feasts." 

Gwynn, the best beloved son, strong and large of stature, was 
the first to fall under the spears of the foemen, and the poet de- 
scribes how the father's heart is filled with bitter grief as he 
laments for bis favorite child : 

"Let the wave break noisily; 
Let it cover the shore as the lances meet in battle, 
Let it cover the plain as the lances join in shock, 
For Gwynn has been slain at the ford of Morlas. 

105 



O Gwynn ! 

Woe to him who is too old 

Since he has lost you. 

Woe to him who is too old to avenge you ! 

Behold the tomb of Gwynn the Fearless! 

Sweetly a bird sang above the head of Gwynn 

Before they covered him with turf! 

But the song broke the heart of Llywarch Hen!" 

Waco, a Norman-French writer of the tenth century, in tran- 
scribing the writings of Geoffrey of Monmouth, who originally 
compiled the legends of King Arthur and his court, added a con- 
tinuation which connected the ancient Britons with the Trojans. 
As the story of King Arthur is originally Welsh, this authority 
may have been in the mind of Giraldus, the historian, who con- 
nects the Fitzgeralds with Trojan ancestry. All these legends 
were reintroduced into England by Layamon, a priest, who re- 
wrote the entire set of legends, including Wace's Trojan songs, 
by command of King John in the twelfth century. The story of 
the Holy Grail was added by Walter Map under the inspiration of 
church authority. 

From an old MS. containing the returns of a board of commis- 
sioners appointed by King Henry VII to inquire into his Welsh 
pedigree, we glean the following genealogical list of ancestry. The 
first part is founded mainly upon traditions and mythological 
records, and the latter largely follows the Bible record. The 
Welsh historians consider the myth heroes as real characters. The 
Welsh claim to be the oldest civilized people in the world, and 
consider their language more ancient than the Hebrew: 

"1. Marchweithian was the founder of the eleventh of the 
fifteen ancient tribes of Wales. This tribe is named therefrom, 
and the heraldic coat of arms of the tribe were 'Marchweithian 
beneath gules, a lion rampant argent, armed, languid, azure.' 
From Marchweithian the line runs back as follows: 2, Llud; 
3, Lien; 4, Llaniniod angel; 5, Pasgen; 6, Unien redig; 7, Cyn- 
varch ; 8, Mcirchion gul ; 9, Grwst Ladlion ; 10, Cenan; 11, Coel 
godebog; 12, Legvan; 13, Dehenfriant; 13, Ludbwyll ; 14, Urban; 
15, Gradd; 1G, Rnned-lych; 17, Rydeyrn ; IS, Endigaid; 19, En- 
deyrn ; 20, Enid (Elvid o enw erall) ; 21, Endog; 22, Eendollen ; 
23, Avallareh; 24, Affeth ; 25, Beli Mawr; 20, Monegen ; 27, Cap- 
poir (nc Pabo enw arall) ; 2S, Pyrr; 29, Samuel Penissell; 30, 
Bhytherick; 31, Eidiol; 32, Arthvael; 33, Seissyllt ; 34, Owain; 

10G 



35, Caph; 30, Blenddut; 37, Meiriawn (Merion, the old hero who 
gave his name to Merionethshire) ; 3&, Gorwst; 39, Clydno; 40, 
Clydawr; 11, Ithel ; 42, Trien; 43, Andrew; 44, Kerryn (ne 
Tharyn o cmv arall) ; 45, Porrex; 40, Coel ; 47, Caddell; 48, 
Gerant ; 19, Elidrniawr; 50, Marudd; 51, Dan; 52, Seissyll; 53, 
Cephelyn; 54, Gwrgan suns drwth; 55, Beli; 50, Dyfnwal moeh 
mudd ; 57, Cynwrch ; 58, Dedd niawr; 50, Antonies; 00, Seis- 
syllt; 01, Gorwst; 02, Kiwalloii; 03, Cunedda; 04, Regan Ferch 
Lyr; 05, Bleuddutt; 66, Rurnbaladr brias; 60, Lleni ; 07, Brutus 
Darianlas; OS, Evroc Cadarn ; 69, Membyr; 70, Madoe; 71, 
Loerinus ; 72, Brutus, tlie great founder of the British nation, 
who led a colony from Bretagne B. C. 1130; 73, Silvius; 74, As- 
eaneus ; 75, Aeneas, the hero of Virgil's Aenid; 76, Anchises; 
77, Caphis; 78, Assaracus; 79, Troas, founder of Troy; 80, Erich- 
thonius; 81, Dardan, King of Phrygia B. C. 1487; 82, Jupiter; 
83, Saturnus; 84, Coelus; S5, Ciprius; 86, Chetini; 87, Javan; 
88, Japbath; 89, Xoahen ; 90, Lamech ; 91, Hethusalem; 92, 
Enos;- 93, Seth; 94, Adda: 95, Duw (God). Welsh historians 
consider the pedigree authentic. From Marchweithian forward 
the lines are clearly marked from written records and family tra- 
dition, aided by herald bards. The Wynnes, Joneses and Cad- 
waladers mentioned in this volume are descended from this an- 
cient line — probably the oldest line in America. 

Ex-President Grover Cleveland has Wynne blood, being de- 
scended from Moses Cleveland, who married Ann, daughter of 
Edward and Joanna Wynne, at Woburn, England, Sept. 20, 1G4S. 
These Wynnes were relatives of Dr. Thomas Wynne. 



107 -/C is' 



f-v' 






STONE COFFIN OF LLEWELLEN THE GREAT 



Mq_liA 




THE STORY OF PRINCESS NESTA. 

A MONG the many remarkable characters which the princi- 
*-- *- pality of Wales has produced, and that they are many 
and conscipuous the history of the little mountain country 
plainly attests, there are none in which the spirit, the romance 
and the dreadful truth of the times enters into more fully, or in 
which is more clearly limned the conditions of life under which 
women were compelled to exist in those medieval days, when 
might made right, and solemn statutes upheld the dreadful custom 
of "le droit du seigneur" with regards to the female wards of the 
king, than is set forth in the melancholy though brilliant life of 
the Princess Nesta. That she was also an ancestress of the family 
makes the chronicles not less interesting, nor less dubiously pain- 
ful. However, a plain sense of duty renders it incumbent on the 
author to tell the story as authenticated in the annals of the clan, 
trusting that the gentle reader will not consider entirely from a 
twentieth century standpoint the acts of a life which filled its web 
and woof during the dark and turbulent period of the last decades 
of the eleventh century. 

Princess Nesta was the daughter of Rhys ap Tewdor, a repre- 
sentative of a long line of Welsh kings running back beyond the 
confines of reliable history, and who was designated by his people 
as King of South Wales, but was styled by the Normans as Prince 
of P/eheubarth. She was born about the year 1074, and brought 
up with the king's other children in as much luxury and with as 
many advantages as the wild and rude manners of the times ad- 
mitted. All accounts unite in pronouncing her the most beautiful 



111 



and accomplished Welsh maiden of the day, and the old bards sing 
her beauty and perfections in the rude minstrelsy for which the 
Celts are so famous. 

But the Xonnans were pressing upon her father's domains in 
ever increasing power, anil her early life was passed in the midst 
of war's alarms and the political intrigues of the times. So in 
time it occurred that her brave father was killed while storming 
the fortress of the Norman baron, Bernard of Xeufmarehe, at 
Brecon in 101)1 , and she was taken prisoner and sent by her cap- 
tors to King William Rufns, son of the Conqueror, while all the 
lands of her family were confiscated. Her young brother Griffith 
escaped and fled to Ireland. Thus the Princess Xesta, then a 
maiden of seventeen years, gifted with a resplendent beauty and 
every grace which her high lineage and her handsome stalwart race 
could give in physical charm, and accomplished to the fullest ex- 
tent with the mental culture which her rude time and clime could 
bestow, became a ward of the crown of England, along with num- 
bers of other maidens of high degree. She was appointed a maid 
of honor to the queen. Xow the fate of these wards was entirely 
at the command of the king. They were kept for and bestowed 
upon the favorites of the court as. rewards of merit and favor — 
given away very much as we in this age would present a horse or 
a dog to a friend. 

Xow it so happened that when William Rufus was shot to death 
while hunting in the Xew Forest, near Windsor, that his younger 
brother, Henry I, succeeded him on the English throne. Henry, 
besides being gifted with great strength of character, a statesmen 
of renown, indomitable in war and stern and stark at other times, 
also possessed the sensual and luxurious traits of his cruel and 
unscrupulous race. On his accession to the power and preroga- 
tives of an absolute sovereign it is not to be wondered at that he 
did many things which were wrongful and oppressive. Therefore, 
casting his eyes about the court, the beauty of the Welsh maid 
of honor attracted his attention ; and, in those days for a king 
to desire was to possess, and the captive Xesta was forced into a 
union with her sovereign. It is stated that a morganatic marriage 
was solemnized, but the union lasted but a few years. From this 
connection was born a son, Henry, who was created Duke of 

Gloucester, and was afterwards killed in war with the Welsh 

> 

112 






! 



- 

• 



r^ 



Ij 
; 



-**"-'- « 



BANNE HARBOR. IRELAND (Now Bannow) 



I 



while leading an attack on the island of Mons (Anglesea). This 
latter Henry had three sons, Meyler, Robert and Henry, who all 
became famous in later years. 

After the downfall of the great family of Montgomery and 
the confiscation of their vast estates in Wales, King Henry be- 
stowed his ward Xesta upon Gerald Fitz Walter as his wife, and 
made the new husband Castellan of Pembroke Castle and presi- 
dent of the whole Welsh district of Dyved. To this union were 
born three sons, William, Maurice, David, and three daugh- 
ters. Upon the death of Gerald, the exact date of which is 
unknown, his widow married Stephen de Marisco, Castellan of 
Abertivy, by whom she bore a son, Robert, who, in connection with 
his half-brothers, achieved great fame in the career of the family 
which 1 am about to relate, and which became a fitting sequel to 
the great deeds of their Norman and Welsh ancestors. 

The first mention which we find in the history of the sons of 
Gerald and Xesta occurs in an account of the battle of Cardigan, 
which occurred in 1130. It is described thus: Lady Nesta's 
brother, Griffyd ap Rhys, whose escape to Ireland has been already 
mentioned, had returned after the death of Henry I, and, rallying 
his feudal retainers around him, had reconquered a large part of 
his ancestral dominions. He had married Gwenllian, sister of 
Owen and Cadwalader of Gwyncdd (Gwynedd means "land of the 
Wynnes"). During the time Griffyd was absent in North Wales 
his Norman enemies, led by Maurice of London, made an irrup- 
tion into his country through the vale of Towy. The heroic 
Gwenllian, rallying such of the retainers as were at hand, met the 
invaders in battle, but was defeated, and she herself beheaded at 
the Castle Kidwelly by her savage captor. It was an execrable 
act even for that savage time, and led to swift retribution. Her 
husband and brothers gathered their forces and advanced, while 
all the Normans — including the sons of Gerald with the Pem- 
brokeshire men — rallied to meet the storm. The battle was fought 
at Cardigan. The Normans were driven, a helpless mass of fugi- 
tives, to the bridge which still spans the Towy. The bridge broke 
under them and great numbers were drowned. The young 
Geraldines, however, escaped ; but it was in such sanguinary war- 
fare that their natures were molded for the greater events of their 
lives still to come. 

115-/1(9 



s 



V t Ef IS 'I F ! j .. "' 



• - . 



• - 
- . .- -. --C-- - 

rf i "-"\^ 



' 






LISMOKE CASTLE. IRELAND 



IIHlS 




THE MOXTGOMEPJES. 

IX PEADIXG the chapter in this book devoted especially to 
the Geraldines, it will be noticed that Maurice Fitzgerald' of 
Wales was wedded to Aline, daughter of Arnulph de -Mont- 
gomery of Pembroke. As the Wynne family trace their descent 
through the offspring of this couple, a few words might be said 
of the illustrious family whose name heads this chapter. The 
Montgomeries were of Norman origin, intermixed with French, 
and at the time of the invasion of England by the Conqueror in 
1056-, they were among the noblest and most influential members 
of the noblesse of Normandy. The head of the house at that time 
was Kogcr, Count of Ponthiou and Alencon. Imbued with that 
same enterprising and adventurous spirit common to his country- 
men, Count Roger brought his retainers to the duke's standard, 
and so passed over into England. lie took part in the battle of 
Hastings, and in all the subsequent military operations which re- 
sulted in the fixing of Norman supremacy north of the British 
channel. 

As a recompense for his great services, and for the distribution 
of the great barons at strategic points where they could aid the 
king in governing his subjects, William I bestowed upon Count 
Roger the earldoms of Shrewsbury and Arundel. As his posses- 
sions were on the borderland between England and Wales, he was 
known as a Lord Marcher. He established himself at Shrews- 
bury, opposite the Welsh land of Powys, and there with his wife 
Mabel he raised up a numerous family of sons and daughters. 
Some of them went abroad ; some went into the church ; and four, 
especially, have a very important place in the history of Wales. 



119 



These were Robert, Hugh, Arnulph and Sybil. Hugh followed 
the Severn valley and the Towy, conquering Ceredigion and 
threatening Dyved. Arnulph, en the other hand, crossed the hills 
in the valley of Cleddau and tr.uk possession of the south of Dyved. 
To secure possession of these fair portions of the "garden of 
Wales," castles sprang up thickly ; among others, those of Carew 
and Pembroke. The power of the Montgomery family now ex- 
tended from Shrewsbury, across Plmlimmon, into the extreme 
southwest part of Wales. 

The sister, Sybil, married Fiiz Hanion, Earl of Gloucester, 
whose loyalty to the cause of William had been liberally rewarded 
with license to take as much Welsh land as he could hold. So he 
rapidly subjugated the rich lands of Gwent and Morgannwg, and 
the whole of Glamorgan, from the Castle of Cardiff on the east to 
the Castle of Ccnfig on the west. Subject to him further west 
were other adventurers in the vale of Neath, and the country 
around Kidwelly — joining at last the territories of Arnulph and 
Hugh. Hugh lost his life while repelling an invasion of Nor- 
wegians upon the island of Mons. In 1099 the Red King allowed 
the other brother, Robert, called Beselme, to succeed Hugh as Earl 
of Shrewsbury.- So he came over from Normandy. He was a most 
able and energetic chieftain, and he straightway began to plan the 
upbuilding of a western kingdom with Shrewsbury as the capital. 
Behind it Welsh princes and Norman earls were to be the subjects 
of its lord, and he was to be in close alliance with the kings of Ire- 
land. And the daring dream did nut fall far short of success. Rob- 
ert stood high above all the Normans of Wales; his dominions, 
either under himself or Ins brother Arnulph, included half of Wales 
and a large slice of English soil. He was a politic man, and won 
the Welsh, who looked to him as to their own princes, as one who 
"would make the land glad with freedom." He formed an al- 
liance with Griffydd ap Conan, who was glad to have the stout earl 
between him and the king. Everywhere the castles were strength- 
ened and the petty Welsh princes placated. Arnulph, who had 
married a daughter of Murtagh, a petty king of Ireland, received 
many recruits from across the channel. 

Upon the death of the Red King his younger brother, Henry, 
grasped the scepter, but his elder brother, Robert, Duke of Nor- 
mandy, also claimed the throne, and levied an army to invade 



" rt<iH *-<t1 







fe^2 









ASKEATON CASTLE. IRELAND 



; V' -""?*' ^ 



England. Henry called upon the Montgomeries for their feudal 
aid, but they held aloof, thinking to profit by the dissensions of the 
royal house. But when Henry succeeded in buying his brother 
off ami had got the Xorman army safely off the island, the peril 
of the Montgomeries reached an acute stage. The king summoned 
the brothers to his court at Exeter at Easter, 1102, and on their 
refusal to appear he marched against them at the head of sixty 
thousand men. He conquered Arundel and Tickhill, and invested 
the great fortress of Bridgenorth. But this was not easy to take, 
and the season was passing away. So Henry proceeded to accom- 
plish by guile what he could not accomplish by force. By extrava- 
gant largesses of money, and promises of the lands of the enemy, 
he finally detached the Welsh allies, and thus placed the Mont- 
gonieries between two fires. Recognizing the inevitable, the rebels 
submitted, and both Robert and Arnulph went into exile, while 
their estates were forfeited and divided up into numerous fiefs 
subject to the crown. Had this house been able to withstand the 
king's might at this time and further consolidated their power the 
whole history of Wales and England might have been vastly dif- 
ferent. But having been thus forced to transfer their activities 
and energy to continental politics, they acquired such renown that 
a chronicler of the time calls upon King Henry and all England 
to rejoice because they had been forced to leave Wales and the 
Severn valley. It is some satisfaction to know that the Welsh 
princes who treacherously broke their pledges to the Montgom- 
eries did not profit by their acts, both of them being flung into 
English prisons and their domains given to Normans or their 
Welsh rivals. 

WELSH NOTES. 

Dynevor was occupied by the Normans for a short time, but 
was for long the fortress of the Welsh until the last great battle, 
wherein Lord Mortimer and Duke Gloucester crushed the South 
Wales warriors and killed the last Llewellyn at Builth. A hun- 
dred and fifty years later it held out against the legions of Owen 
Glendower, the last of the Welsh princes who tried to free their 
country. The present Lord Dynevor is a lineal descendant, and 
still boars the Ravens of Rhvs as his motto. 



123 



Sir Rhys ap Thomas, of Carmarthen, was the most influential 
supporter of the Earl of Richmond, and the former's Welsh troops 
did much to win the day at Bosworth battle, and it is recorded 
that Sir Rhys' own arm struck down the guilty Richard III, and 
made possible the fulfillment of the old prophecy that a Welshman 
should unite the two countries and sit upon the throne. 

At Kidwelly Castle the Lady Gwenllian, wife of Griffith ap 
Rhys, during the absence of her husband, led her forces in de- 
fense against the attack of the Normans under Maurice de 
Loudres in the twelfth century. She was defeated and captured, 
and beheaded by her captor on his return to the castle. It was an 
execrable act even for that savage time. 

Cenarth Castle was located some distance from Pembroke. It 
was the castle of Gerald de Windsor, made famous by the event 
wherein Owen ap Cadogan with his wild Welsh tribesmen stormed 
it to get possession of Lady Nesta, wife of De AVindsor. 

At Llechryd Bridge Rhys ap Tewdor, supported by his South 
Welsh subjects, overthrew the Xorth Welsh mid Powys forces of 
Cadogan ap Bleddyn, the slain bodies choking the current of the 
river Teify. 

At Dogmacl, a little below Cardigan, is a monastery founded 
by William the Norman. Here was a sanguinary fight between 
Rhys ap Tewdor and Einion, one of his subjects. The latter, de- 
feated, fled to Fitz Hanion at Glamorgan, whom he incited against 
Rhys, the result being the defeat and death of the latter, and the 
capture of his daughter, Lady Xesta, who was turned over to the 
wardship of Henry 1 and circumstantially led to her union with 
Gerald de Windsor. Xesta spent her early life in Cardigan 
Castle. 



124 




CAHIK CASTLE. IRELAND 




THE INVASION OF IRELAND. 

RUE invasion of Ireland by the Anglo-Normans differs in 
great measure from other invasions and conquests in that 
it did not represent any national movement of armies or 
peoples, but stands generally as an enterprise conducted by the 
members of a single family. It is a striking renaissance of the 
remarkable exploits of the De Ilautevilles already detailed in this 
volume, and, strange to say, the leaders of the new movement are 
direct descendants of the same family who accomplished so much 
on the shores of the Mediterranean. Through the union of the 
Welsh princess, Nesta, with the Norman noble this remarkable 
woman became the ancestress of nearly all of those bold spirits who 
conquered one of the fairest domains washed by the waters of the 
Atlantic, and built up for themselves vast feudal sovereignties 
equal to any in the then known world. Of these the Fitzgeralds, 
Carews, Barrys, Cogans, Fitz Stephens and Fitz Henrys were 
most prominent, though in process of time the Fitz Clares, the De 
Montmorcneics, Bourkes and De Conreies were amalgamated by 
marital ties. Conspicuous among these knights and adventurers 
was one who though not himself a knight, but a priest and the self- 
appointed chronicler of the rest, Gerald de Barri — better known 
as Gerald of Wales, or from his author name, Giraldus Cam- 
briensis — who was the grandson of Nesta, through her daughter, 
Angareta. To him we are indebted for a large amount of in- 
formation touching the family and the events. This author is, 
indeed, a captivating figure. With his half-Welsh, half-Norman 
blood ; with the nimble, excitable, distinctly Celtic vein constantly 
discernible in him : with a love of fighting which could hardly have 



127 



been exceeded by the doughtiest of the knights, bis cousins and 
brothers; with a pen that seems to fly like an arrow across the 
page; with a conceit which knows neither stint nor limit; he is 
the most entertaining, the most vividly alive of chroniclers; no 
historian certainly in any rigid sense of the word, but the first, as 
he was also unquestionably the chief and prince, of war corre- 
spondents. 

There was no lack of motives for this invasion, outside of the 
greed of the Norman nature, and the dominant characteristic of. 
that enterprising race to seize whatever belonged to another. The 
Irish Church was viewed by the Popes as schismatic. Henry I had 
obtained years before a Bull from Hadrian IV sanctioning the 
conquest of Ireland "to the honor of God and the welfare of the 
land." But it was left to an Irishman fourteen years later to 
open the door, and call in the foreigner to the undoing of his 
country's freedom. Dermot McMurrough, King of Leinster, hav- 
ing foully wronged a neighboring chieftain, he complained to 
Eoderick O'Connor, his overlord, and in the war Dermot was 
driven from the country. He passed over into Wales and enlisted 
the favor of Robert Clare, Earl of Pembroke, known as ''Strong- 
bow," and .Maurice Fitz Gerald. To the former he offered the 
band of his daughter Eva in marriage and the succession to the 
Kingdon of Leinster. In order to give the expedition a 
reasonable semblance of twelfth century legitimacy he visited 
Henry II ami procured a quasi-approval of the enterprise, Clare 
secured the Bourkes, De Courceys and others, while Maurice en- 
listed his family relationship, which were considerable and pow- 
erful. Robert Fit/. Stephen led the advance guard, supported by 
several of his kinsmen. He was a son of Lady Nesta. His force 
consisted of thirty mail-clad men-at-arms and about 360 archers 
and foot soldiers, the flower of Hie youth of Wales. He landed 
near Wexford in 1 1 TO, and was joined by Dermot with his wild 
clansmen. An assault on Wexford was successful. The first in- 
vader to l>e wounded was Robert de Barri, a grandson of Xesta, 
who was struck by a stone while mounting the ladders. The town 
and territory were granted to Fitz Stephen and Maurice Fitz 
Gerald by the Irish chief. The allies marching northward took 
the country of Ossory. These successes served to unite the Irish 
natives, and Roderick, the dominant king of the island, brought 



v. 






g^tea 






MAYNOOTH CASTLE. IRELAND 



such a force to the field as to practically surround Fitz Stephen 
and Dermot. The latter entrenched themselves at a point near 
Ferns, and proceeded to negotiate. In a speech to his followers 
at this time Fitz Stephen said : "We derive our descent, origi- 
nally, in part from the blood of the Trojans !" referring to a 
genealogical tradition that the family of Other were descended 
from Aeneas through the De Medicis. A peace was concluded on 
the basis of Dermot receiving the kingship of Leinster. 

Soon after Maurice Fitz Gerald arrived with a considerable 
force, landing on the island of Bannow, near Wexford. By 
reference to genealogical table it will be seen that Maurice was a 
half-brother to Fitz Stephen, and as he is an immediate ancestor 
of our family it might be well to at least describe his personal 
appearance: "He was a man of dignified aspect and modest 
bearing; of a ruddy complexion and good features. He was of 
middle height — neither tall nor short. He was wise and mod- 
erate, and much more anxious to be good than to appear good. In 
war he was intrepid, and second to no man in valor ; but he did 
not run heedless into danger, and, though prudent in attack, was 
resolute in defense. He was sober, modest, chaste, constant, firm 
and faithful ; a man not without fault, but not stained with any 
great crime." Upon the arrival of Maurice and his forces Dermot 
assembled his own army, and the two marched upon Dublin, leav- 
ing Fitz Stephen engaged in building a fort for the better pro- 
tection of Wexford. This place is still known as Carrach Castle. 
The city of Dublin and adjoining territory were quickly subdued, 
and Fitz Stephen, in turn, relieved Limerick, which was besieged 
by the Irish. The ambition of Dermot being fired by these suc- 
cesses, he offered Maurice and Fitz Stephen bis two daughters in 
marriage if they would assist him in invading Connaught. As 
they were already married, he renewed the same offer to Richard 
of Pembroke. The earl, who had before held back from the enter- 
prise, now became interested and sent over a considerable force 
under his lieutenant, Raymond le Gros, who was the son of 
Maurice Fitzgerald's elder brother, William. Raymond possessed 
all the qualities of a great general, and the wonderful success of 
the Normans in Ireland was largely attributable to his talents. 
He landed near Waterford, and engaging the enemy, quickly 
scattered them; and, being joined soon after by Earl Richard and 

131 



his foivcs, the city was stormed unci taken. The city of Dublin 
having revolted, the combined forceps of the earl, Raymond, Mau- 
rice and Fitz Stephen investi d the place, and after a short siege 
a successful assault, beaded by Milo de Cogan, a nephew of Mau- 
rice, was made and the capital captured. Milo was made governor 
of the place on account of his great deeds. After this the county 
of Meath was overrun. 

So "Teat had been this initial success of the family leaders in 
Ireland, and so much territory had they acquired, that envious 
persons spread abroad and carried to King Henry II such reports 
as induced the belief that the adventurers were setting up an in- 
dependent sovereignty and that they would be able shortly to defy 
the king himself. The latter, allowing himself to be influenced 
by these reports, made proclamation interdicting the landing of 
any supplies of men and material in Ireland, and commanding 
the Geraldines to return to England under pain of forfeiting their 
estates and being adjudged rebels. In this exigency Raymond 
■was sent by his relatives to see the king and set the matter straight, 
and proffer all territories conquered to the king. Pending the 
result of Raymond's mission Dermot died and Earl Richard as- 
sumed the succession of his rights. An attack was made by Danes 
on Dublin, but was repulsed by Milo de Cogan and his brother 
Richard. (It is supposed that the name Cogan is the same as the 
Welsh Gwygan or Gwyn, or later, Wynn.) 

But Dublin was again invested by the Irish, Richard, Maurice 
and Raymond, who had returned, being in command; and Fitz 
Stephen was likewise besieged at Carragh by a large host of ene- 
mies. Hearing of Fitz Stephen's strait, the Dublin Geraldines, 
as a result of a determined sortie, defeated and scattered their 
enemies. In this action Meyler, a nephew, and Gerald and Alex- 
ander, sons of .Maurice, distinguished themselves. Thereupon the 
army marched to the relief of Fitz Stephen, who had, however, 
surrendered before they reached him. 

However, the limits of our present work will not allow us to 
continue to detail the progress of the conquest of Ireland. The 
king having relented in his judgment, and having arranged his 
French affairs, passed over into Ireland, and proceeded to adjust 
the affairs there. He brought a large army, quite sufficient to 
overawe both the Normans and the natives, and all parties 

132 









, '■'- * * 












J 







CONWAY CASTLE 



hastened to do obeisance. Fitz Stephen was released, and his pos- 
sessions restored; but in the main he deprived the Geraldines of 
the fruits of their valor and set some court favorites over them. 
Their natural talents for leadership quickly brought them to the 
front again, however, and we find Maurice, and his nephews, 
Griffith, brother of Raymond, Walter de Barri, Meyler Fitz 
Henry, Ralph Fitz Stephen, and others, rescuing the governor of 
Dublin from an Irish ambuscade. The king becoming embroiled 
with his rebellious sons a little later, recalled most of his lieu- 
tenants and troops, and turned Ireland over to the Geraldines, 
with Raymond as military chief. He retained this office until 
recalled to Wales by the death of his father, William Fitzgerald, 
and Hervey Montmorency took his place. This latter captain 
proving incompetent, Raymond was sent for, and, having received 
his share of his father's estate, he equipped a large reinforcement, 
with which he speedily relieved Waterford, Wexford and other 
invested points. Afterwards he espoused Easilia, the daughter 
of Ear] Richard Strongbow, but on the very day after his mar- 
riage he was called to lead his army to the relief of Meath and 
the territories adjacent. In the short peace which prevailed after 
these energetic movements the Geraldines became more closely 
united by the marriage of Hervey Montmorency with Xesta, 
daughter of Maurice Fitzgerald ; and Earl Richard's daughter, 
Alina, with William, eldest son of Maurice Fitzgerald. Maurice 
himself, who bad gone back to Wales to reside, was induced to 
return to Ireland, and was given the earldom of Offaly with Wick- 
low Castle as a hereditary fief. Meyler was given the province on 
the frontier of the Pale. 

The Irish Prince of Limerick having rebelled against the Xor- 
man government, Raymond led a force against them. His ad- 
vance guard coming to the river Shannon, David Welsh, a nephew 
of Raymond, crossed alone to test the ford, and coming back, he 
and Meyler recrossed almost alone and were attacked by a strong 
force of Irish who had come up. Raymond, however, coming up 
with the main body, dashed across, and the city was quickly taken. 
Raymond was stout (hence his name Le Gros), was a little above 
the middle height ; his hair was yellow and curly, and he had large, 
round eyes. His nose was prominent, his countenance high-colored ; 
cheerful and pleasant. He was prudent and temperate, capable 

135 



of great endurance and much beloved by his comrades. Meyler, 
his cousin, on the other hand, was of a dark complexion, with black 
eyes and a stem and piercing look ; was below middle height, but 
of great strength. lie was daring and adventurous, and shrank 
from no enterprise either singly or in company. Among other 
Geraldines who distinguished themselves at this time we gather 
the names of Robert de Barri, Raymond of Kantitune and Ray- 
mond Fitz Hugh, who were all killed during the first years of the 
occupation; Milo de Cogan, the first to come over; Robert Fitz 
Henry, brother of Meyler. David Welsh, the one above men- 
tioned, was also killed a little later. 



136 




THE GERALDINES. 

THE death of Earl Richard left Ireland in charge of Raymond 
until the king appointed a Fitz Aldelm, who on his arrival 
conceived a dislike to the Geraldines and tried on all occasions to 
depress them. Maurice Fitzgerald died Sept. 1, 1177, at Wex- 
ford, and was buried in the Abbey of Grey Friars there. Soon 
after the governor was recalled, and the king gave Fitz Stephen 
and Milo all of the kingdom of Mimster. Five years later Milo 
and his son-in-law, Ralph Fitz Stephen, were treacherously mur- 
dered by a band of Irish outlaws. A rebellion succeeding, Ray- 
mond marched thither and restored order. Soon after Richard 
de Cogan, Milo's brother, Philip de Barri, Fitz Stephen's nephew, 
Gerald de Barri, the author (Giraldus), and brother of Robert de 
Barri, arrived, from Wales and assisted in restoring the fortunes 
of the Geraldines. Hervey de Montmorency, tired with the trials 
of the turbulent times and left a widower by the death of Xesta, 
daughter of Maurice, returned to England and became a monk of 
Canterbury, endowing the church with all his possessions in 
Waterford and Wexford. At this time there flourished in Wick- 
low, Wexford and Kildare counties William, Gerald and Alex- 
ander, sons of Maurice Fitzgerald ; in Minister were the Cogans, 
the sons of Fitz Stephen — Alexander and Giraldus ; at Waterford 
was Robert de Barri, younger son of Philip, who held possessions 
in Leinster and Desmond, besides both Raymond of Kantitune 
and Raymond Fitz Hugh. Raymond le Gros and his brother 
Grifi'yth were established in Leinster. Altogether upwards of 
thirty Geraldines were enfeoffed in South Ireland. Then Hugh 
de Lacy, the governor, was recalled, and more trouble came to 
them. However, the new governor proved so incompetent that De 



137 



Lacy was recalled tlie next winter. Among his acts were to detach 
Meyler from Kildare and locate him in Lex (now Queens county), 
the extreme west side of Leinster, for the purpose of guarding the 
frontier, and built him a castle at Tahmel. Meyler married a 
niece of the governor. In 11S5 Prince John, son of Henry II, 
came to Ireland and took charge of the country; our relative, Giral- 
dus, now Archdeacon of Canterbury, acting as his secretary. John 
only stayed eight, months. He returned as king twenty-five years 
later and ousted the l)e Lacys, who had become predominant. 
Within this time we find our family had done very well for them- 
selves. Maurice's descendants had become the Earls of Kildare 
and Desmond ; William Fitzgerald, his brother, had possessed 
Kerry; indeed, as time went on the lordship of the Desmond- 
Fitzgeralds grew larger and larger, until it covered as much 
ground as many a small European kingdom. Nor was this all 
— the White Knight, the Knight of Glyn and the Knight of Kerry 
wei-e all three Fitzgeralds, all descended from the same root, and 
all owned large tracts of country. The position of the Geraldines 
of Kildare was predominant. In later times their great keep at 
Maynouth dominated the whole Pale, while their followers 
swarmed everywhere, each man with a G embroidered upon his 
breast in token of his allegiance. The elder son of Gerald de 
Windsor inherited his father's Welsh possessions, and William's 
eldest son, Odo, succeeded him ; later through intermarriage with 
the Carews (Careys) he became the ancestor of both the Welsh 
and Irish branches of that family. David, the third son of 
Gerald de Windsor, entered the church and became Bishop of 
St. David, the metropolitan diocese of Wales. At his death 
Giraldus was elected to succeed him, but having incurred the dis- 
pleasure of the king, was not allowed to assume the office. He was 
one of the few learned men of the times, having gone through the 
University of Paris, both as student and afterwards as teacher. 
He refused the bishopric of Bangor. When Richard Coeur d' 
Leon departed to the crusades, Giraldus, in conjunction with the 
Bishop of Ely, were appointed as administrators of the kingdom. 
He was again elected Bishop of St. David, but because the king 
believed that a Welshman at the head of that see would be dan- 
gerous to English supremacy, he was again refused. In 1215 he 
was again offered the place, but declined on account of age. He 

138 



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died in 1223. Philip de Barri, his nephew, succeeded him as 
Archdeacon of Brecknock. 

For many years the history of Ireland is a dead level waste of 
commonplace events — for that day. The Xormans became much 
Jrishized by contact with the natives, and many intermarriages 
of the two races occurred, though forbidden by statute. The 
viceroys were usually petty English princelings who rarely came 
to the island, and the backbone of the country was the gTeat fami- 
lies developed from the Geraldines and their great rivals, the 
Butlers of Ormoiul. So it ran along until the invasion of Ireland 
by Bruce in 1315. The Scottish chief all but won the island from 
Britain, and had it not been for the stern constancy and indomi- 
table fighting quality of Desmonds and Kildares — the old Fitz- 
gerald blood — the history of the British Isles might read far dif- 
ferent to-day. Edward Bruce was himself descended from Strong- 
bow and Dermot Mcilurrough, but he was defeated and killed 
by descendants of the old associates of these leaders in a fierce 
battle at Dundalk. 

"Scrambling forward" is what researchers of Irish history des- 
ignate the period up to the war of the "Roses." Many times the 
Norman element was almost overwhelmed by the natives, and 
the boundaries of the Pale became narrower and narrower. The 
Duke of York was banished to Ireland in honorable exile, and at 
the birth of his son George, the luckless Duke of Clarence, the 
Earl of Desmond acted as his sponsor. His residence here stood 
him in good stead, as most of the Geraldines upheld the Yorkist 
party in the civil war which shortly followed. The Earl of Kil- 
dare and his troops assisted in winning the bloody field of Towton, 
which restored the family of York. The Earl of Ormond, their 
great rival, was taken and beheaded, and much of his estates in 
Ireland became the spoil of the Fitzgeralds. This left them in 
complete control for nearly a century. Even after the recru- 
descence of the Lancastrian dynasty in the Tudors the family 
maintained its ascendency. The greatest leader of this epoch was 
Gerald, eighth Earl of Kildare, called by his followers Geroit 
Mor, or Gerald the Great, who as deputy from 14S0, under five 
successive kings and during a period of thirty-three years, 
"reigned" until his death in 1513. He was the most important 
chief governor who ruled Ireland upon thorough-going Irish prin- 

141 



ciples. "A mighty man of stature, full of honor and courage." 
"Princely and religious in his words and judgments" is the report 
of the "Annals of the Four Masters." "His name awed his ene- 
mies more than his army," says Camden. "In hys warres hee 
used a retchless (reckless) kynde of diligence, or headye care- 
lessness," is another report. Although he espoused the cause of 
the pretenders against Henry VII, and was imprisoned a year in 
England, he was released and reinstated, although Sir James 
Ormond was given the place of Lord Treasurer instead of Baron 
Portlestcr, a Geraldine, who had held it for thirty -eight years. 
Frequent outbreaks occurred with the Butlers. In one of these, 
where friends sought to patch up a truce, a hole had to be sawed 
in the door of the Chapter House so that the two chiefs could 
shake hands. The rival war cries of these factions, "Croom-a- 
boo" and "Butler-a-boo," were solemnly prohibited by act of Par- 
liament in 1404. It is recorded that the English Council re- 
ported to the king "that all Ireland cannot govern this man." 
The king retorted, "Then this man shall govern all Ireland," and 
he withdrew his commissioners accordingly. He was a patron of 
art and science, and did much in connection with his kindred to 
advance civilization in the island. The Great Earl was slain in 
1513 in a skirmish with one of the chiefs of Offaly. 

He was succeeded as deputy by his son Gerald, also called 
"Great." For some years he followed the trend of his father's 
policy, and did much to advance the English cause, but he failed 
to read aright the changing order of things. Henry VII was dead 
and Henry VIII was engaged in his famous struggle with the 
papacy, which exercised much influence on his political policy. 
Earl Gerald was in attendance on the king at the famous meeting 
of the Field of the Cloth of Gold, and like his father wedded a 
near relation of Henry. But his power made him incautious; he 
incurred the enmity of Wolsey, and was spied upon and hounded 
by the Butlers, who were related to Queen Anna Boleyn; he was 
accused by the latter of corresponding with the king's foreign 
enemies, and in 1534 he was committed to the Tower. He seemed 
to have had a foreboding of evil, as he had appointed his son 
Thomas as vice-deputy, and had removed the artillery from Dub- 
lin Castle to Maynouth and other fortresses of his own. Wolsey 
denounced him as "Xing Kildare, who reigned rather than ruled 

142 



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DOLWYDDELEN CASTLE, WALES 



in Ireland." He died within a few months of confinement and 
from effects of a wound. A false report sent to Ireland that "the 
earl had hecn cut shorter, as his issue should be," set the whole 
Pale aflame. 

The young Lord Thomas, only twenty-one — hot-tempered, un- 
disciplined and brimful of the pride of his race — at once roused 
his subjects to rebellion. Galloping up to the Council House with 
a hundred and fifty Gerald hies at his heels, he cast the Sword of 
State upon the table in front of the astonished councillors, and de- 
clared himself the foe of the king. The latter dispatched an army 
to the scene, which, forming a junction with the Butler faction, 
laid siege to the Earl's fortress of Maynooth, believed in Ireland 
to be impregnable. But the English had brought over some heavy 
artillery and a breach was effected. Whether the place was taken 
by treachery or fair fighting is uncertain, but the garrison was 
butchered to a man. This "Pardon of Maynooth" is still men- 
tioned as an equivalent for murder. The rebellion collapsed. Lord 
Thomas was taken and executed, along with five of his uncles; 
two, apparently, without any proof of guilt. A child, Gerald, 
afterwards the eleventh carl, was the only scion of this branch of 
the ancient family left alive, lie was carried by his aunt, Mary 
O'Connor, into the wilds of Offaly and from thence smuggled to 
Trance. Lord Grey, the king's deputy, overran Cork, broke down 
the castles of the Barry s and Minister Gerald inos, and effectively 
ruined the family. 

Even Lord Grey, himself, who had served the king so well, but 
was related to the Geraldincs, was charged by the Butlers with 
trying to shield the family, and was executed by the vindictive 
order of Henry himself.' The eclipse of the Kildares brought the 
next branch of the Geraldines into prominence. The Earl of 
Desmond was invited to London and every effort was made by 
the king to bind his house to royal policy. A state paper of the 
times says: "The winning of the Earl of Desmond was the win- 
ning of the rest of Minister with small charges." ruder the brief 
reign of Mary the young Earl of Kildare was restored to his 
honors and regained his lands. 

Tn the reign of Elizabeth the great Shane O'Neill ran his great 
career, during which he subjected half of Ireland to his rule, and 
harassed a large part of the remainder with bis forays. He stands 

147 



in history as the last great Irish feudal chief; hut he was also a 
Geraldine, his grandmother having been sister of the Earl of Kil- 
dare. Morris in his history speaks thus of him: "lie possessed, 
in the very highest degree, the excellences and defects of the 
genuine Celt; his veins were full of Geraldine blood, but he was 
a great Irishman in liis essential character." 

In the few years following 156G the Desmond branch of the 
family were to undergo great trials. The honors and lands of the 
Desmonds had been inherited by Gerald, the thirteenth earl; they 
carried with them the suzerainty of nearly a third of Minister, and 
the allegiance of clans and septs of Irishry from the plains of 
Cork and Limerich to the Kerry ranges. Xow the feuds between 
the Desmonds and Butlers had never ceased, despite many family 
alliances; they were mostly questions of titles and ownership, and 
therefore exclusively one for the lawyers. The queen summoned 
both the earls, Ormond and Desmond, to appear before her for 
the adjudication of their claims. The two earls were stepson and 
stepfather. But Ormond had the advantage of being related to the 
queen through her mother, Anna Boleyn, and Desmond had not 
his reputation of absolute loyalty to the crown. Desmond was 
forced to turn all his rights over to the crown. His brother, Sir 
John, whom he had left in control of his lands, was also sent to 
the Tower. It is small wonder that the family following should 
have resented these acts; and under Sir James Fitzmaurice, a 
cousin of the carl, they rose as one man. And, strange to say, 
many of the Butlers joined them, regarding the confiscation as an 
act of tyranny which might act as a precedent against them. For 
two years war was carried on, anil finally a compromise settlement 
was effected, Fitzmaurice agreeing to leave the country and Des- 
mond being reinstated in most of his domains. 

In 1570 the last great rebellion of the Desmonds broke out. 
Fitzmaurice, going from court to court in Europe, had received 
pledges of support from Spain and the Pope, and landed in Kerry 
with a few hundred soldiers. All the Geraldines rose in revolt, 
and a sanguinary war raged for four years, involving more than 
half of Ireland. Unfortunately for the rebels, Fitzmaurice, who 
was a man of great ability, was killed in a skirmish the first 
year. The war partook of the most savage guerrilla character; 
the land became a desert ; devastation was everywhere. Finally 



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GWYDIK CASTLE. WALKS 



numbers prevailed, and the Earl of Desmond, driven to bay in 
Kerry, was killed in battle, surrounded by hundreds of his devoted 
kindred to the last. His immense personal domains — some half 
million of acres — was parceled out among English '"undertakers," 
and colonists from England were put in possession. Among those 
who were thus favored were Edmund Spenser, the poet, and Sir 
Walter llaleigh. It is said Kalcigh first introduced potatoes into 
Ireland by planting them upon the ground thus obtained. The 
rebellion crushed, a bloody vengeance was exacted. Desmond's 
brothers were taken and executed — Sir John Fitzgerald at Cork 
and Sir James at Askeaton. The Earl of Kildare was sent to die 
in the Tower, along with Desmond's son, a feeble boy, with the ex- 
tinguishing of whose sickly tenure of life the direct heirs of the 
Munster house were extinguished. The whole south of Ireland 
became a reeking shambles; what sword and rape and torch had 
spared famine came in to complete. 

In 1596 another great revolution broke out in Ireland — again 
headed by a blood relative of the familv, though himself mainly 
Irish. Hugh O'Xeil, Earl of Tyrone, and nephew of Shane 
O'Xeil, before mentioned, had been kept as hostage at the English 
court since boyhood. He was reared in English ways, which he 
seemed to assimilate so completely that Queen Elizabeth revived 
the earldom of Tyrone and, bestowing it upon Hugh, sent him 
home. For many years Hugh was loyal, and his followers joined 
in putting down the Desmonds — his relatives. But the bad gov- 
ernment at Dublin, and the favoritism shown to English adven- 
turers soured him, and his remonstrances to the queen passing 
unheeded, he took up arms in defense of his rights. His sister 
had married the head of the O'Donnels, and the two great clans 
were united on the field for the first time in all history. The war 
lasted for six years with varying success, and was finally settled by 
compromise, the earl retaining his title and lands, but renouncing 
his Irish headship of the great sept, of O'Neils. At the end Eliza- 
beth was told that she "reigned over ashes and dead carcasses." 

The after career of these leaders may be briefly told, and here 
our tale of the Geraldines in Ireland will end. After the death 
of Elizabeth and the accession of James I, Hugh and bis brother- 
in-law, O'Donnel, attended court, where they were received with 
favor and the latter was raised to the peerage under the title of 

151 



Earl of Tyreonnell. Many changes were introduced into Ireland, 
and English law everywhere prevailed. Some charges of treason 
were trumped up against these great proprietors, their lands were 
declared forfeited, and they fled to France. Three millions of 
acres of their lands were devoted to the "plantation" of Scotch 
and English settlers, and thus was formed the nucleus of the 
present Protestant population of Ulster. 

NOTES OX GERALDIXES. 

An instance of the despotic sway of Gerald, eighth Earl of Kil- 
dare, is found in the following incident: One of his daughters 
was married to a De Burke, and complained to her father of mis- 
treatment at the hand.-; of her husband. The father called his 
troops, state and private, and invaded the domains of his son-in- 
law, whom he defeated at the battle of Knocktow, leaving seven 
thousand of the Irish dead on the field. All the territories of 
De Burke were taken over by the victor. 

Lord Surrey, son of the victor of Flodden Field, was a grand- 
son of the ninth Earl of Kildare. 

Ariosto, in Orlando Furioso, Canto X, Stanzas S7-88, says of 
the Fitzgeralds: 

"Sono due squadre e il conte di Childera 
Mena la prima; e il conte d Desmonda 
Da fieri mondi ha tratta la seconda. 
Nello stendardo, il prino ha un pino ardente; 
L 'altro nel bianco una vermiglia banda." 

Two of the daughters of the ninth Earl of Kildare were married 
to Irish chiefs, O'Connor and O'Carroll, in defiance of law, and 
he was looked upon as suzerain by all the wild tribes from the 
ranges of Ulster to the far hills of Kerry. 

Gerald Mor, the eighth Earl of Kildare, married Elizabeth St. 
John, the cousin of Henry VII. 

Maurice Fitzgerald was appointed by Henry II the second 
Governor of Ireland, after Strongbow's death. 

The direct descendants of Maurice Fitzgerald were Earls of 
Desmond, Barons of Oft'aly, Earls of Kildare, Dukes of Leinster, 
Knights of Glyn, White Knight, Knight of the Valley, Knight of 
Rhodes. The Fitzgeralds of Kerry were Barons of Decius, 
Seneschals of Innokilly, Knights of Kerry. In Tipperary and 
Waterford were Fitzgeralds as Barons of Cosbmore and Cosh- 

152 



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bride. The Villers, Earls of Jersey, intermarried with them in 
the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and were created Earls 
of Grand ison. The Fitz G i 1)1 ions were branches of the Fitz- 
geralds, present head Earl of Clare. 

Raymond, son of William Fitzgerald, had a son, Maurice, from 
whom his descendants have been named Fitz Maurice. Earl of 
Kerry is one of the branches; as, also, the present head is Marquis 
of Landsdowno. The Carews were also descended from William 
Fitzgerald, through Odo, his son. The head of the family seems to 
have remained in Wales. Odo married a daughter of Richard Fitz 
Tancred, Constable of Haverfordwest, who was a sou of Tailored 
of Bawdry, Constable of Haverfordwest. Gerald, an older brother 
of Odo, was slain when a young man. Raymond, the youngest 
son, carried his fortunes to Ireland. The Castle of Carew com- 
mands one side of the neck of the peninsula of Pembroke. Will- 
iam inherited the castle and fief, hence the name. The Fitz- 
Maurices were Barons of Lixnaw, Viscounts of Clan-Maurice, 
and Earls of Shelbournc. One of the Carews married a daughter 
of Robert Fitz Stephen. 

The Irish Wynnes were Barons of Iledley. The name Wynne 
was Irishized into O'Maolgaoithe or Mulgeehv. 

Commanding the side of the neck of Pembroke peninsula, op- 
posite Carew Castle, is located Manorbier Castle, the seat of 
l)c Barri, who married Angharad, daughter of the elder Gerald. 
Here was the birthplace of our author, Giraldus, and the other 
Barrys famous in Irish history. They held large demesnes in 
Cork and Waterford. Some of the family are now called Mc- 
David. The Barrys were Barons of Olethaun, Viscount of Butte- 
vant and Earls of Barry. Walter de Barri, brother of the his- 
torian, was on one occasion warned in a dream not to take part in 
a certain expedition. Xot heeding it, he was slain the next day. 
•Adam de Montgonierie's son, Edmund, married Elizabeth, 
sister of Lady Xesta. 

Offaly, given to Maurice Fitzgerald, comprises a great part of 
Kings, Queens ami Kildare counties of the present day. The 
head of the family, established at the great Castle of Maynooth, 
only sixteen miles west of Dublin, practically separated the capital 
from the rest of the island and gave him paramount political in- 
fluence. 

154 



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David, the third son of Xesta and Gerald, went into the church, 
and rose to become Bishop of St. David, the metropolitan see of 
Wales, as Canterbury is of England, and wielded a mighty in- 
fluence upon the destiny of Wales. He served from 1145 to his 
death in 1176. 

Another branch of the family in Ireland were the De Cogans, 
who were descended from a daughter of Angharad, Gerald's 
daughter. Their descendants exist to this day in Minister, 

Of Nesta's son by Henry I, it may be said that he was killed 
while leading a Norman* invasion of the island of Mons (now 
Anglesea). His half-brother, Robert Fitz Stephen, was at the 
same time wounded, but escaped. Fitz Henry left a son, Henry, 
who was father of Meyler, Robert and Henry, all of whom figure 
in Irish history. 

Hervey de Montmorency, who married a daughter of Maurice 
Fitzgerald, was a member of the princely house of Montmorency 
in France. This family is mentioned beginning with Bouchard 
T, Baron de Montmorency, contemporary with Hugh Capet. Mat- 
ihieu II was constable in France in 12M0; at the battle of Bou- 
vines in 1214. .Mattliicu TV was grand chamberlain to Philip 
III. Charles was marshal in 1325 and councillor of state while 
the French king was captive of Edward TIL Anne, Due de ^Mont- 
morency, was the greatest of the family; a veritable Bayard, 
Marshal of France. He lived till the accession of the Bourbons 
to the throne. Henry IV designated his family as next to royalty 
in the kingdom. The family were later allied to the Condes, the 
Medicis and Longuevilles. They were in the crusades. Matthieu 
I married Aline, natural daughter of Henry I of England, and 
Hervey was probably a scion of this union. After serving in Ire- 
land, where he obtained large possessions, he, upon the death of 
his wife, returned to England and became a monk, bestowing his 
estates upon the church. 

Cogan is the same as Gwgan and may have originally been 
Wynn. Milo de Cogan was Governor of Dublin after it was cap- 
tured, largely by his valor. The city was afterwards besieged by 
Danes and Norwegians, who were repulsed by the Normans under 
Milo and Richard de Cogan. 

Odrone is a barony in the neighborhood of Laiglin, Carlow 
county, Ireland. It was given to William Fitzgerald and de- 
scended to the Carcws. 

159 



Robert Fitz Stephen was for two years a prisoner of Griffith, 
his brother-in-law, in Wales. 

The Trojan origin of the Geraldines is attributed to two sources, 
one the Welsh genealogy mentioned elsewhere, and we give the 
other herein. In 1 GG5 Father Dominic O'Daly, writing to the 
Cardinals Antony and Francisco Barberini, in Italy, says: "Ten 
years' siege had destroyed the glorious city of Illium and cut off 
all its leaders with the single exception of Aeneas, who, being 
compelled to fly, assembled about him a trusty band of youths who 
had outlived their country's overthrow,' foremost, of whom in dig- 
nity and bravery was the founder of our Geraldines. * 
Aeueas soon afterwards divided the land of Italy among his fol- 
lowers, assigning to each his portion ; and in the distribution he 
bestowed upon the great ancestor of our Geraldines that region of 
Hetruria where Florence now stands."' Giraldus also claims Trojan 
origin on the Welsh side through the traditional settlement of a 
colony of Trojans under Brute, the grandson of Dardanus, in 
West Britain. 

Maurice Fitzgerald had several children. His eldest son, John, 
was Baron of Kildare and Leinster; his second son, Thomas, was 
Baron of Connell and Limerick. Maurice's wife was Lady Alice, 
daughter of Arnulph, son of Roger de Montgomery. His son 
Gerald married Catherine, daughter of Ilanno de Vale-is. His 
daughter, Xesta, wedded TTervey de Montmorency. Another son, 
William, married Alina, daughter of the Earl of Pembroke. 
Maurice's grandson. John, was Baron of Callan and Lord of 
Decies. and Desmond. His great-grandson, Thomas, was the first 
Earl of Desmond and inherited Fitz Stephen's domains in Cork. 

Richard, Earl of Pembroke, was nephew of Hervey de Mont- 
morency, and Thomas Fitzgerald was son-in-law of Roger de 
Montmorency. 

Barry of Lemlara, Ireland : This branch of the once potent 
name of Barry — -so influential under the successive Earls of 
Barry, the Viscounts Buttevant and the Earls of Barrymore, has 
enjoyed large possessions in the County Cork since the first incur- 
sion of the Anglo-Xormans in the time of Henry II. The Barrys 
of Sandville are derived from the Buttevant branch. The Bury- 
Barrys of Ballyclough sprang from the Earl Barry. 



160 



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SARCOPHAGUS OF KING LLEWELLYN. GWYDIR CHAPEL, WALES 



The first Castle of Pembroke was built by T)e Montgomery with 
sods, interlaced with twigs and boughs of trees. It was rebuilt 
of stone by Gerald de Windsor. 

Gerald Fitz Walter was Lord of Molesford, Governor of Pem- 
broke and High Steward of Pembrokeshire. 

The Fitzgeralds of Coolanowle, Ireland, derive from Gerald 
Fitzgerald of Tymogue and Morrett, living 1641. Intermarried 
with Marquis of Hastings. 

Fitzgeralds of Moyriesk, Ireland, of recent date, derived from 
family of Fitzgeralds of Moyvane. 

Fitz Gibbons of Crohanna, Ireland; from the ancestry of the 
White Knight in Knight of Glynn in 1530. Was succeeded by 
his brother on account of Desmond's rebellion. 

The Frenches of Cuskinny, Ireland, arc intermarried with the 
Wynnes ; and Sampson Towgood Wynne is heir to Savage French 
of Cuskinny, Xov. 28, 1634. 

The Wynnes of Eos Brien, Ireland : The daughter and heiress 
of the Goolds — a very ancient family of the County of Cork, mar- 
ried in 1S69 Henry LcPocr Wynne, son of Gen. George Wynne, 
P. E., and by him had issue. 

Wynnes of Hazelwood, Ireland : Right Rev. Frederick Rich- 
ard Wynne, Bishop of Killaloe, son of Rev. Henry Wynne, and 
great-grandson of Right lion. Owen Wynne of Hazelwood. 

Knight of Kerry is a very peculiar title, and though not of 
regal honor, has been held as a prescriptive honor from medieval 
times, and at various times recognized by the crown. The ancestor 
of this line of the Geraldines, John Fitz Thomas Fitzgerald, Lord 
of Decies and Desmond, by virtue of his royal seigniory as a Count 
Palatine, created three of his sons by his second marriage heredi- 
tary knights, ami thus inaugurated the titles. Their descendants 
have been so styled in patents under the Great Seal. 

Warin Fitzgerald was one of the nobles who exacted Magna 
Charta from King John, and his name appears upon said instru- 
ment as one of the contracting parties and witnesses. 

Earl Desmond was sponsor or godfather of George, Duke of 
Clarence, brother of Edward TV. The Earl of Kildare led forces 
for the Yorkists at the battle of Towtoi). 

Fitzgeralds of Turlough, Ireland: Descend traditionally from 
Thomas Fitzgerald (third son of Maurice, Knight of Kerry), who 

163 



married the daughter and heir of O'Dae, Chief of Ida in Kil- 
kenny, and assumed the name of O'Dea, by which the family was 
known till the end of the sixteenth eentury, when they resumed 
the name of Fitzgerald. 

Fitzgerald of Moyrane, Ireland: Dates from about 1600, from 
Garrett Fitz John Fitz Gibbon, a branch of the White Knight. 
In 1700 ^Maurice dropped the name of Fitz Gibbon, which was 
never afterwards used. This family have intermarried with the 
Earls of Desmond, Thomand and Ulster. 

The Grace family, the head of which is the Baron of Courts- 
town, Kilkenny county, Ireland, are descended from Raymond le 
Gros. The ruins of twenty castles thereabouts attest their former 
power and importance. 

The old Desmond war cry, "Shannid a boo," originated from 
Shannid Castle, in Limerick, Ireland, one of the family strong- 
holds overlooking Shannon river. A large number of castles and 
abbeys, ranging from Shannon to Kilmallock, the remains of 
which are still standing, belonged to this family. Kilmallock was 
the capital city of the Desmond demesnes. 



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WYNNKSTAY. PENNSYLVANIA 









RETURN OF OSBERX. 

IK a preceding chapter we have sketched fully the general 
history of the Geraldines, from the union of Gerald Fitz 
Walter with Lady Xesta, the beautiful and high-bom daughter 
of Rhys ap Tewdor, Prince of South Wales. We have followed 
their fortunes through the invasion of and conquest of Ireland 
and the part which they took in the government of the same, 
together with the incidents connected with the ruin and downfall 
of the family fortunes at a later age. It now behooves us to go 
back and follow the career of a particular branch of this family, 
through devious meanderings and changes of country, until we 
finally connect them with the more immediate progenitors of the 
American branch of the Wynne family. 

It will be remembered that Maurice Fitzgerald married the 
Lady Alice, daughter of Lord Arnulph de Montgomery (an ac- 
count of the Montgomeries is to be found in another place). 
Maurice after the conquest of Ireland became a great noble, pos- 
sessing the half of Wrexham, the Barony of Offaly, the Earldom 
of Kildare, and afterwards the Earldom of Decies and Desmond. 
Maurice's eldest son, John, inherited Kildare and became the 
most powerful subject on the island. Maurice's second son, 
Thomas, founded the Minister house, with large estates in Cork, 
Limerick and Kerry. The Barony of Council alone contained 
one. hundred thousand acres. The lands of Thomas were added 
to by his son, John of Callan, including Decies and Desmond, 
Dungarvon, and later on by all of Fitz Stephen's share of Cork. 

John of Callan's son, by his first wife, was Osber or Osbern, 
who having attaint d large grants of land in Merioneth, Wales, 



167 






including the site of the present mansion of Cors y Gedol, and 
emigrated from Ireland in the thirteenth century. This gentle- 
man was assessed in the parish of Llanabar, County Merioneth, 
towards the tax of a Fifteenth in 1293. Below is the line of 
genealogy as given hy Browning in his "Americans of Royal 
Descent": ©, v) v S Qi ' / * </ / <xUu>fi TCI 

1. Maurice Fit/. Gerald Fit/. Walter (Marriole Fitz Gerard), 
Lord of Offaly and Xaas, County Kildare, Ireland, who went to 
•^ Ireland in 11G8, with many followers, to assist Dermot McMur- 
b rough, King of Leinster, in his war with his subjects, and died 
1177. He had by Lady Alice, his wife, daughter of Arnulph, 
son of Roger do Montgomery : 
;•'•:. 2. Gerald Fitz Maurice, Baron of Offaly, Chief Justice of 

Ireland, died 1205, who had by his wife, Lady Catherine, daugh- 
ter of Hanno de Yalois, Lord Justiciar of Ireland, 1107: 
-"""IT- Thomas Fitz Maurice, Fitz Gerald, surnamed the Great, 
second son, who died 1200, who married Lady Elinor, daughter 
of Jordan de Montmorency, and had: 

4. John Fitz Gerald, killed at Callan by the McOarthy-Mor 
in 126'1, who had by his first wife, Lady Margery, daughter of 
Sir Thomas Fitz Anthony, Lord of Desmond and Decies: 

5. Osbem Fitz Gerald, Lord of Ynys-y-Maengwyn and Cors 
y Gedol, in Merioneth, designated by Welsh genealogists by the 
further denomination of Osber Wyddell or the Stranger from 
Ireland, and more commonly Osburn Wyddel, or Osborn the 
Irishman. This chief emigrated to Wales about the middle of 
the thirteenth century, where being in high favor with Llewelyn 
ap Iowerth, Prince of Xorth Wales, he obtained from that mon- 
arch grants of Yns-y-Macngwyn and Cors-y-gedol, and other ex- 
tensive possessions. He was the ancestor of several of the most 
eminent families in the principality. Among them are the 
Vaughns of Cors-y-gedol; Yales of Plas-yn-Yale; Lloyds of Plas- 
Enion; Rogers of Bryntangar; Gwyns (Wynns) of Yns-y-Maen- 
gwyn ; Morgans of Draws Vynedd ; Lewises of Festinioge ; 
Joneses of Maes-y-Garmcdd ; Wynnes of Glynn; Wynnes (by 
change of name Xanneys) of Maes-y-Xenadd ; Wynnes of Pen- 
riarth. His arms were : "Ermine, a saltire, gu." 1 1 is son 

6. Cymric ap Osbem, who, on the division of his father's 
lands according to the custom of "gavel-kind," prevalent in Wales 

168 



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WYNNEWOOD. PENNSYLVANIA 



until the passage of the ordinance for the better government of 
that country in the parliament of the 34th and 35th of Henry 
VIII, inherited as a portion of his share the dominion of Cors y 
Gedol in Merionethshire. His issue, among others, was: 

■7. Llewellyn ap Cymric, who married Lady Nesta, daughter 
of Gritlith ap Adda, of Dol Goch Yenys-y-Maengwyn, and had 
Griffith, lowarth, Einion, Angharad and Janett. The third son: 

8. Einion, who was born about 1315, among other issue, had 
a daughter: 

9. Gwerflr, who married Robin ap Meredith, ap Howell, ap 
David, ap Cariodog, etc., and who was descended from Owen 
Gwynedd, King of Xorth Wales, and entitled to use the royal 
Welsh coat of arms, consisting of: "Quarterly — 1st and 4th vert; 
three eagles displayed in fesse or," for Owen Gwynedd ; and "2nd 
and 3d, gu. three lions passant, in pale argent, armed," for Grif- 
fith ap Oynan, King of South Wales. [See Burke's Peerage, p. 
1658.] They had a daughter, who married: 

Ithel Vychan (Vaughn) ap Cynric ap Ratpert ap lowarth ap 
Ririd ap lowarth ap Madog ap Ednowain Bendew, Lord of Tegamgl 
and Chief of the 15th Xoble Tribe of Wales. This Ithel Vychan of 
Holt, Denbigh and Northrop, in right of his wife, and of Bodfari 
and Yskeiviog, Flintshire, after his marriage went to live upon 
his wife's estate at Holt in Denbighshire. His great grandson, 
Richard, was living in Holt in 1488, but Richard's son William 
succeeded his uncle John at Chilton in Shropshire, England, 
which had been granted by Henry VII to his branch of the family 
for services on Bosworth Field, together with a new coat of arms 
of the tinctures borne by Henry himself in that battle, viz. : 
Argent and vert. Ithel Vychan had two sons, Cynric and David: 

10. Cynric ap Tthel Vychan, of Bodfari and Yyskeiviog, 
Flintshire, alive after 1420, married Tanglwystl, daughter and 
heiress of Gruffydd Lloyd ap David ap Meredith ap Gruffydd. 
Other authorities state that he also married a daughter of Gruf- 
fydd ap David ap Meredith ap Rhys. He had by one or the other 
of these wives issue as follows: John Rhys, and: 

11. Harri ap Cynric of Yskeiviog, was born probably about 
1485, and was a man of very considerable standing in his county. 
The family lands in Bodfari seem to have gone to his brothers. 
Rhys ap Cynric, called Rees Wyn, was of the township of Aber- 

171 



whiler, in Bodfari. He was horn about 1487, and had several 
sons who Mere freeholders there. We know that among - Harri ap 
Cynric's possessions was Bronvedog, in Yskeiviog, afterwards the 
home of Dr. Thomas Wynne. Harri married Alice, daughter of 
Simon Thelwell, Esq., of l'las y Ward, by Janet, his wife, 
daughter of Edward Langford, Esq., of Ruthin, in the County of 
Denbigh. Harri ap Cynric had issue by Alice, his wife: 

John Wynne, of whom presently. 

Thomas, of Yskeiviog, who had issue, inter al., Rees 
Wynne aj> Thomas, who had Thomas Wynne, baptized 
in 1581, and other issue. 

12. John ap Harry was of the parish of Yskeiviog, where he 
was born and where he died probably prior to 1572. He was cer- 
tainly dead before 1592. He married Katherine, daughter and 
heiress of Ithel ap Jenkin ap David ap Howell, and had issue 
by her: 

1. John Wynne, called also John ap John, Vicar of 

Caerwys, who left issue. 

2. Ellis Wynne. 

3. Griffith Wynne. 

4. Howell, in. Jane, dan. of Thomas Griffith, and had 

by her John, father of Bees Wynne of Galedlom, 
Hugh, Rhys and Lowry. 

5. Ithel, whose son, Rees, was assessed as a landowner 

in Yskeiviog in 1592. 
G. Rees ap John Wynne, of whom presently. 

7. Margaret, m. Thomas Ellis. 

8. Alice, m. John Benet. 

9. Tabitha, m. Ievan ap Richard. 

10. Gwen, m. first Howell ap David. 

11. Jane, m. Robert ap Griffith Lloyd. 

12. Elizabeth, d. unmarried. 

13. Gwensi, d. unmarried. 

13. Rees ap John Wynne was born in the parish of Yskeiviog, 
in the County of Flint, circa 1538, and is assessed as a freeholder 
there in. the subsidy of 1592, being the second payment of the 
2d subsidy for the Hundred of Ruthlin. lie was a man of con- 
siderable importance, but the date of his death is unknown. Even 
his wife's name is unknown. He had issue: John, of whom 

172 




BANK MEETING HOUSE, PHILADELPHIA 



presently; Edward, baptd. duly, 1572; Harry, baptd. C March, 
1574; Catherine, baptd. 1 .March, 1577; Janett, baptd. 2 Xov., 
1579; Jane, baptd. 10 June, 15S1 ; Hugh, baptd. 19 Feb., 15S3. 

14. John ap Rees Wynne, born about 1570, was married at 
Bodfari Church, October 20, 1588, to Grace Morgan. The entry 
in the parish register reads: "(1588) John ap Rees ap John 
Wyim and Grace dr Morgan were married the XXTXth October.'' 
The exact date of his death is unknown, but it was prior to 1040. 
lie was prominent in the affairs of his county, and esteemed a 
wealthy and influential man. His issue were: 

Thomas, baptd. 20 Dec., 1580; 
Mary, baptd. 10 March, 1500; 
Jane, baptd. June, 1505. 

15. Thomas ap John Wynne, of the parish of Yskeiviog, was 
born 1580, and baptized 20 Dec, 1580, at the parish church. lie 
lived at Bronvedog, in this parish, in the period 1638-30. During 
the years which preceded the civil war in England he suffered 
severely from fines and taxes imposed so unjustly during that 
time. The name of his wife is even unknown, many of the parish 
books being destroyed. He had five children, as follows: Harry, 
baptd. Xov., 1610; Edward, baptd. April, 1622; John, baptd. 
13 April, 1625; Thomas, baptd. 20 July, 1027, of whom pres- 
ently; Peter, baptd. 30 Jan., 1630. 

Thomas Wynne, M. D., is the ancestor of the American branch 
of the family. He was born at Bronvedog, in the parish of 
Yskeiviog, Flintshire (near Caerwys). 



175-Hk 




GEN. JOHN CADWALADER 



m-n* 




THE WELSH WYXXES. 

THE author in tracing the genealogy of Dr. Thomas Wynne 
in and out among the other families of Welsh kindred was 
particularly struck with the numerous intermarriages with the 

Gwydir branch, and for this reason takes the liberty to insert a 
summary of that family, beginning with Robert ap Meredith ap 
Howell aj) David ap GrirKyth ap Cariadog. This Robert was the 
elder brother of Robin, whose descendant married into the Fitz 
Gerald family. Robert married, at the extreme age of eighty 
years, Angharad, daughter of David ap Llewellyn, and bad: 

Jevan, who married first Catherine, sister of Howell ap Rhys, 
and second Gwenhylar. By his first wife he had Meredith, 
Robert and John. In the following years, after Jevan had mar- 
ried his second wife, a feud broke out between him and his former 
brother-in-law, Howell ap Rhys, which raged with bloody result 
for many years. We glean the further history from the Annals 
of Gwydir, written by Sir John Wynne at the beginning of the 
seventeenth century: 

"A'ow in the country where this family lived, namely, Evioneth, 
in Merionethshire, there were blood feuds of the most deadly 
character existing between Jevan and his immediate kindred, and 
the kindred of Howell ap Rhys, although the two septs were also 
related by ties of consanguinity and by intermarriage. There 
had been many people slain on both sides, and many more had 
been forced to leave the country because of the feud. So Jevan 
takes his eldest son and heir, Meredith, to one of his friends at 
Creigiaw in Llamaire, an honest freeholder of the hundred of 
Yseorum Isgurvai (Carnarvonshire), to foster, a custom very 



179 



prevalent in those days. This worthy man, having no children 
of his own, gave his inheritance to his foster child. lie also sent 
him to school at Carnarvon, where he learned to read and write, 
and understand Latin, a matter of great moment in those days. 
His brethren, who were left behind, losing their father early, had 
no education. 

"At the age of twenty-three, his foster father being dead, he 
wooed and married a young woman who was daughter-in-law to a 
wealthy merchant named Spicer. Her name was Alice, daughter 
of William Griffith, sheriff of Carnarvon county. The couple had 
two daughters, Janett and Catherine, whereupon Meredith con- 
cluded to change his living, and go back to Evioneth, where there 
was nothing but killing and fighting; but he finally purchased a 
lease of the castle and fields of Dolwyddelan, of the executors of 
Sir Ralph Berkinett, and removed there — part of the castle being 
inhabitable. This old fortress had for many years been inhab- 
ited by outlaws, freebooters and smugglers, and ihe entire neigh- 
borhood was a retreat for all manner of lawless men. But, as 
Meredith tersely yet grimly put the matter: that 'if 1 had to slaye 
and be slayne I had rather fight with strangers than with my own 
kindred.' There also existed a wasp's nest in the neighborhood 
in a lordship belonging to the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, 
the members of which, not being amenable to any law except their 
own, were continually building up their ivtinue by affording 
sanctuary to thieves and murderers. In this state stood the "hun- 
dred" of Xantconway when Meredith took up his residence there, 
in the twenty-fourth year of his age and the beginning of the 
reign of Henry VII. Meredith proceeded in a diplomatic way 
_to make himself strong in the county, first by affording asylum to 
various refugees who were obliged to flee from other sections, and 
by taking leases of unoccupied property he fixed his followers as 
tenants thereon; until at one time be could command the services 
of two hundred stout retainers in any enterprise which he under- 
took. 

"Of course the life was not a peaceful one, but enforced con- 
tinual watchfulness and care. lie was forced to remove his 
church from a valley and set it in a plain with the trees all cut 
away for a goodly space around, the walls of the church being 
made strong enough to resist a siege. It stood in a triangle with 

180 




REV. JONATHAN WYNNE. FAYETTE CO.. PA. 



his castle, and another strong' residence at Penanmen, so that his 
scouts might keep constant watch from the heights of Garreg-beg 
on all of them, and give alarm if either were attacked. Certain it 
is that he durst not go to church on Sunday without a strong 
guard, and leaving a garrison at his residence. Even then, al- 
though attended by twenty tall archers, he durst not make known 
beforehand that he intended going to church. But, by and by, he 
grew so strong that he rooted out the knights from their sanctuary 
and drove them to seek safety out of the county ; he also entered 
into agreements with the king's officers to maintain the king's 
writs throughout the district, so that finally he secured peace and 
order in the wildest district in all Wales." 

With all his stirring home life Meredith found time to make 
two trips to Rome — a great undertaking in those times — but for 
what purpose other than travel we are unable to discover. He 
died at Gwydir on the 18th day of March 152"), aged about sixty- 
five years, and was interred in his own church at Dolwyddelan. 
He was married thrice, and left as issue twenty-six children. His 
oldest son, William, died without issue, and John, his second son, 
received as his portion Gwydir, and the lands in Xantconway, 
Dolwyddelan and Llanfrothen. John married Elin Lloyd, 
daughter of Mawris John ap Meredith of Khiwaedog, and had, 
among other issue, Morris, who was eldest son and inherited 
Gwydir; he married Janett, daughter of Sir Richard Bulkley, 
Knight of Beaumaris, and died in 1553. He had one son, John, 
by this marriage, who succeeded him in the Xantconway estates, 
and who was knighted by King Henry VIII in 1611. Sir John 
married Sidney, daughter of Sir William Gerard, Lord Chan- 
cellor of Ireland, by whom he had eleven sons and two daughters. 
He added largely to the family estates, and was one amongst the 
foremost citizens of Xorth Wales. He was much interested in 
the mineralogy of the country, and did much to develop the valu- 
able ore and coal mines of Wales, as well as the immense slate 
quarries upon which the principality depends so largely for its 
prosperity. In such interests he traveled all over Wales, and was, 
perhaps, the best known person in all the land. Xumerous anec- 
dotes are still told of his doings and adventures in different locali- 
ties. He died in 1G2<J. 



183 



His son, Sir Richard, was groom of the chamber to Charles II 
and died childless. After various changes the landed possessions 
of the family have passed into the hands of Sir Herbert Williams- 
Wynne, of Wynnestaye, Wales, who is the present head of that 
branch of the family. 

WELSH XOTES. 

Llanrwst is a typical old Welsh town on the right bank of the 
Conway. It contains probably three thousand souls on a single 
street. It was formerly a great wool market, and in ancient times 
was noted for its harps. One of the noteworthy features of the 
place is the Church of St. Marys, built in the fifteenth century, 
on the site of one much older which was dedicated to St. Grwst or 
Rhyslyd, and henr-e the name of the town. In the graveyard ad- 
jacent are to be found names of distinguished Welshmen who 
flourished in ye olden time. The feature of the church is an 
annex called Gwydyr Chapel, which was added by the Wynnes 
when they came into possession of the district in the seventeenth 
century. This mortuary chapel was designed by Inigo Jones, the 
most celebrated architect of western England at that time, and a 
native Welshman. A door cut through the wall of the south tran- 
sept of the church chancel gives admittance. The room is nearly 
square in shape, and perhaps thirty feet in length, filled with 
tombs, mural ornaments and brasses of this potent and virile 
race. To touch upon the fantastic and sometimes beautiful work 
that is here, or mention the worthy courtiers and renowed warriors 
that it commemorates, is impossible and unnecessary. But here 
among the wild mountains, with the rush of a Highland river 
sounding through the open door, there seems somehow a stronger 
flavor of romance about these dead and gone lords and ladies, and 
chieftains of the vale Conway, than appertains to the tombs of the 
great in a homely churchyard. Besides the family tombs of the 
Wynnes of Gwydyr, there is to be found here a memento of former 
Welsh greatness which awakens livelier emotions than the names 
of mere country barons; and this is the stone coffin of no less a 
person than Llewellen ap lowerth, the Great King of all Wales. 
It was brought from the original tomb at Aberconway to the old 
Abbey of Maenan, when the whole establishment was moved under 
Edward I ; and at the dissolution of the abbey at the commence- 
ment of the Reformation, or soon after, all the royal belongings 

184 




REV. ISAAC WYNNE, FAYETTE CO.. PA. 



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187 



were brought here. Much, indeed, of the interest in Llanrwst 
Church pertains in the woodwork, screens and other treasures that 
were conveyed hither from the royal and ancient edifice. Here 
also, lies a recumbent effigy in full armor of Howell Coetmore, 
who led a detachment of Denbigh men on the bloody field of 
Poicters, where Edward the Black Prince won undying glory. 
Howell was a Wynne. 

Gwydyr Castle is situated one-half mile from Llanrwst, on the 
other side of the Conway; long the seat of the Wynnes, but passing 
by female line to the Dukes of Ancaster, and by similar line 
through the Willoughbys to the D'Eresbys — and now owned by 
Lord Carrington. It is supposed to have been designed by Inigo 
Jones. A short shady walk leads to it from the town, and the 
portals of the old mansion opens out on to the highway. Indeed, 
unless you caught sight of the date "1555'' above the door with 
the initials "T. W." you might pass it by unnoticed, for all that 
can be seen of the glories within. Many old relics of ancient 
Wales are to be found there, and especially is shown a beautiful 
screen worked by the fingers of Mary, Queen of Scots. Gwydyr, 
or Gwaed-dir, means the "land of blood." Two great battles were 
fought here: The first in the seventh century by Llywarch Hen, 
the poet warrior: the second after the death of the great Welsh 
lawmaker, Howell Dda — when Xorth and South Wales met here 
in fierce combat, to the worsting of the latter. Xot a great deal of 
the original Wynne mansion of 1555 is left, but it is still a beau- 
tiful and ancient house, full of carved oak and tapestry, and 
Spanish leather, and treasures and relics of great people in- 
numerable. Queen Elizabeth and Charles I and the great Earl 
of Leicester were entertained here. It is now only occupied by 
the owner for short periods. The estate was acquired by the 
Wynnes, who bought it of the Coetmores of Poicters fame. By 
the roadside near the mansion is the Fountain of St. Albright; 
a stream conveyed in pipes from a large reservoir higher up the 
mountain. Near here are the Crags Ddu, where, as Taliesin 
sings, "are the tombs of the warriors of the Isle of Britain." "The 
grave of the son of Offra, after many conflicts at Camelot." "The 
grave of Bedwyr is in the ascent of Tryfan." 

"On Glydyr's heights behold the grave 
Of Ebbidew, that hero brave, 
Whose matchless prowess, clad in steel, 
Oft made the foe his vengeance feel." 

188 







V 



- . - 



SUMMER HOME OF BENJAMIN CORSON, FAYETTE CO.. PA. 



The famous Charles Wesley, one of the founders of the Meth- 
odist denomination, married in his forty-first year Sarah Gwynn 
(Wynne), daughter of a Welsh squire, a lady of culture, refine- 
ment and piety. They were married at Garth. 

Sir Howell y Fwyall (the axe) served with Edward the Black 
Prince at the battle of Poicters, and virtually captured the French 
King John. For this service he received large lands, and, in addi- 
tion, the royal mandate required that a mess of meat should be 
set. before Sir Howell every day while he lived. He was also 
allowed to quarter the French royal arms with his own, "such 
being the ancient right of the conqueror over his prisoner." It is 
said that with one stroke of his battle axe he cut off the head of 
the king's horse, and took the rider prisoner. His heraldic arms 
were: "A battle axe in bend, sinister, argent." 

It appears that Meredith, the founder of the Gwydir branch 
of the family, served his king in France as a commander of a 
considerable body of men, and that he assisted at the siege of 
Tourney. 

A grandson of Meredith Wynn was Sir Thomas Williams, who 
was physician to the person of her Majesty Queen Elizabeth, and 
who wrote the first Welsh dictionary." He also made a correct 
list of the wives and children of his grandfather, with their de- 
scendants. 

In Queen Elizabeth's time there lived John Wynne, Doctor of 
the Archers, born at Gwydir. youngest son of John Wynn ap 
Mei'edith, being fellow of St. John's College and Doctor of the 
University. He arrested John, Duke of Northumberland, for 
treason. He gathered a great estate, which he left to bis brother 
Griffith. He founded two fellowships and three scholarships at 
St. John's College. Cambridge. Mis nephew, Owen Wynn, was 
afterwards master of that college. Several other descendants of 
Gwydir have filled high place in church and state. 

Robert Wynne, third son of the elder John ap Meredith, was 
at the siege of Boulogne, where he was wounded. Also in the 
harrying of Scotland by Henry VIII. He also accompanied the 
King's embassy to Charles V, Emperor of Germany, at a time 
when that monarch at the head of five hundred thousand men was 
resisting the Moslem invasion of Hungary by Solomon the Mag- 
nificent. 

191 



The following important personages in the United Kingdom 
are related to tlic Wynnes : 

Wynne is the family name of Baron Xewborough ; also of Sir 
II. I.. Watkins Williams-Wynne of Wynnestayc ; Earl of Car- 
rington of" Givydir is a descendant; Gen. Arthur Singleton, C. B., 
who was through the Egyptian, Afghan and South Afriean wars, 
wounded in S. Africa, and promoted to major-general; George 
Wynne, editor of Liverpool Mercury; Major Reginald Wynne, 
was through the Reil Canadian rebellion, Afriean war with 
Paget's rough riders; Col. Trevredyn Rashleigh, son of Llewellen 
Wynn, constructor and manager of Indian Railways, was in 
Chinese Boxer war, full colonel and A. de C. to Viceroy of India; 
William Palmer Wynne, F. R. S., an authority on chemical 
science, and secretary of British Society of Chemistry; William 
Robert Maurice Wynne, J. P., Lord Lieutenant of Merioneth- 
shire, M. P., and constable of Harlech Castle ; Rev. J. R. Edwards 
Wynne, professor in Cheltenham College ; Llewellen Wynne- 
Jones, Archdeacon of Wrexham. 

There are many hotels in East Wales called the "Wynnestaye 
Arms." One at Wrexham is the principal inn of the city. One 
is at Llanrhaidr-yn-Moehnant, one at Oswestry, one at Llanhryn- 
mair, one at Ruabon, and one at Ruthin furnished entertainment 
on our trip. Wrexham contains the tomb of Elihu Yale, founder 
of Yale College. 

Powys Castle stands one mile south of Welshpool, which is 
twenty miles west of Shrewsbury. This is the ancient land of 
Powys, where Wynn ancestors ruled. Powys Castle is now in 
possession of the Earl of Powys, a descendant of the famous Lord 
Clive of India. 

Corwen, on the river Dee, was the center of the kingdom set up 
by Owen Glendower, whose successful revolution and short reign 
is the subject of innumerable songs and legends in Welsh litera- 
ture. The hill which formed his watch tower and signal station 
stands near. Here he assembled his army before the battle 
of Shrewsbury. Six miles up the river is a fishing station called 
Glyndyfrdwv, from which Glendowr derived his name. 

The Cathedral of St. David lies sixteen miles west from Haver- 
fordwest, in Pembrokeshire, in the extreme point of AVales. It 
is the most important, diocese in AVales. David, the third son 

192 




GRAVE OF REV. JONATHAN WYNNE 



of Gerald P'itz Walter, was bishop of the diocese for nearly fifty 
years, and other members of the family held important offices 
therein at other times. Lamphey Palace, one of the residences of 
the bishop, is twenty-four miles from Tenby. 

Cadwaladcr, the last King of Britain, had Idwallo I, King of 
Wales, A. 1). UOO ; who had Roderick Malivinnge, King of Wales, 
A. D. 720; who had C'onan Triudoathwv, King of Wales, 755; 
who had Eislhf, Queen of Wales, who married Mervin Urich, 
818; who had Roderick II (Rodri Mawr), the great King of All 
Wales, 843j he married Lady Anghard, daughter of Meuric ap 
Dynfnwal. From this line the AYynnes are descended. 

It wonld be highly desirable if the family name conld be spelled 
uniformly instead of so many different ways. The name of Dr. 
Thomas Wynne, the founder of the American branch, should be 
adopted and conformed t<>, no difference what lettering may have 
been used heretofore. 

In Wales most of the present day surnames are only Christian 
names modernized. In Cymric the word ab or ap signifies ''son 
of." So that "John ap Thomas" means John, the son of Thomas: 
and in olden times this is the way the identity of the individual 
was kept. Rut in time this became burdensome, as, for instance, 
Sir John Wynne would have been ycleplod "John ap Morris ap 
John ap Meredith ap Jevan.'' etc., running back interminably. 
So in time John ap Thomas became John Thomas, and John ap 
John became John Jones. Among the very few real surnames in 
Wales, the Wynnes, Bulkleys and .Morgans are most numerous, 
and extend backward into remote antiquity. Wynne or Gwynn 
means "light'' or "fair-haired." 

Penioarth is one of the historic seats of Wales and is still held 
by the Wynnes. It contains a great library of Welsh literature 
and museum of Welsh relies and antiquities. 

Pentr-wyn is an angle of Great Orme mountain, Carnarvon- 
shire; named after Wynnes. 

The cathedral at Bangor contains the tomb of Owen Gwynedd, 
King of Wales, an ancestor of the Wynnes. 

Harlech Castle, built by the Xormans, but often in possession 
of the Welsh, lies in extreme west, overlooking the sea. Several 
of the Wynnes were commanders of the castle, and held positions 
of authority there. The famous song, "March of the Men of 

195 



Harlech," was written to commemorate the capture of the castle 
by the Yorkists in 146S, (luring the wars of the Roses. It was 
the last stronghold in North Wales to hold out for Charles I. 

The Ber-wyns, a range of hills on the west side of the upper 
Dee, in Merionethshire, were named after the Wynnes. 

Captain Wynne was a soldier of Charles I who was very highly 
esteemed throughout the land. At the siege of Denbigh by the 
Parliamentarian- lie was killed while leading a sally. The be- 
sieged royalists, not being able to bury him in his own family 
graveyard, made a convention with the besiegers, whereby they 
carried his remains to the bridge over the stream dividing the 
armies and there transferred the coffin to a party of Cromwell's 
men, who transported it to ami buried it with military honors 
at Llanrhaiadr churchyard. 

Cors-y-Gedol is the seat of the extinct Vaughn family, an off- 
spring of the Wynnes through female line. 

Pentre Voclas, a village in Merioneth", belongs to a Mrs. Wynne. 

Xannan was formerly the residence of Howell Selo, an ancestor 
of .the Wynnes, who, although the kinsman, was the inveterate 
foe of Owen Glendower, the last of the old royal race to contend 
against England for the independence of Wales. It is situated 
between two and three miles from Dolgelly, the road by which it 
is approached being a continual ascent, and it is supposed to 
"occupy a loftier site than any other gentleman's house in 
Britain." In the park of Xannan stood, until 1S13, an oak meas- 
uring 28 feet in circumference, in the hollow trunk of which, 
tradition relates, the body of Howell Selo was concealed after he 
had been slain by a party headed by Owen Glendower. It was 
known as the "Demon Oak" and the "Haunted Oak." Sir Walter 
Scott refers to it and to the incidents connected with it in his 
note> on "Marmion." 

Xear the town of Rnabon (once the residence of Dr. Thomas 
Wynne) is "Wynnestaye," the splendid seat of Sir Watkins 
Williams-Wynn. Bart., M. P. It is an imposing edifice, and 
contains many tine apartments, embellished by family portraits 
by Vandyke, Knellar and Sir Joshua Reynolds. The park is 
eight miles in circumference, and has some of the finest trees in 
Wales. Close to the park gates is the church with monuments of 
the Wynne family. The long avenue (one mile) and the Water- 

19C 



I 



_-_;__ ■ -— ._. ■ - >-^-^=^ J , ■--„-- ■ . . ■ 

GRAVE OF MRS. MARY WYNNE 



loo Tower are noteworthy. From the tower a beautiful walk 
leads along the Dee to the mausoleum erected by the owner of 
Wyimestaye to the memory of the officers who fell in the Irish 
rebellion of 17U8. The park also contains the ruins of an old 
fort with three towers, and may have been the origin of the triple- 
towered seal which Dr. Wynne used as his own in America. Xot 
far away is visible Eliseg's Pillar, erected in the eighth century 
by Concenn in memory of his great-grandfather Eliseg, Prince of 
Powys, an ancestor of the Wynnes. 

Rug, situated one mile from Oorwen, is the seat of Hon. C. 
II. Wynne, and is a beautiful place. Here are preserved the 
knife, fork and dagger once used by the last sovereign of Wales, 
Owen Glendower. 

Carew Castle, home of the Carews, is located six and a half 
miles from Tenby, near Pembroke, on a creek of Milford Haven. 
It dates from the twelfth century. 

At Pettws-y-Coed you find "a walk up the vale of the Lledr 
to Dolwyddelan Castle (pronounced Doolooithelan). The name 
indicates it to have been built by the Osbers, called by the Welsh 
'"Wyddel." It is as wild a looking fortress as one can conceive. 
It is twenty -four miles southwest of Llanrwst, and was the first 
residence of Meredith Wynne in the laud of Denbighshire. It is 
memorable as the birthplace of Llewellen the Great, King of All 
Wales. It was the last stronghold in Xorth Wales to withstand 
the forces of Edward 1. 

Sir John Wynne's son, Richard, was a groom of the chamber 
to the king, and accompanied the Duke of Buckingham to Spain 
for a bride to the king. Henry VIII, in 1020. 

The Mountain of Mod Winn lies in the vicinity of Snowdon. 
Xear it is Dolbadam Castle, on the site of the old Welsh tower 
of Mael-gwn, King of Wales in the sixth century. Later, the 
Xormans built the castle which was afterwards captured by our 
ancestor, King Owen Gwynedd, and remained his capital during 
his reign. It is in the heart of Snowdon, and is nearly inac- 
cessible. It is the only castle in Snowdon. It overlooks the val- 
ley, and the entire pass of Llanbaris is visible from it. It is a 
small structure of its class, being only twenty-five feet in diameter 
and seventy-five feet high. '•Owen Goch, brother of King 
Llewellan, was imprisoned here for twenty years for having joined 
in rel>ellion against his In-other." 



The 2nd Royal Tribe of Wales was the one from which Rhys 
ap Tewdor was descended. 

Dr. Samuel Johnson, LI.. P., the eminent English philosopher, 
made a trip through Wales in 1774, and mentions: "We went 
from Bangor to Carnarvon, where we met Sir Thomas Wynne 
and dined with him." 

In Arthur Fox-Davis' interesting work on the "Art of Her- 
aldry'' occurs the following item: "An early and interesting 
Irish example of marshaling is afforded by a dimidiated coat of 
Clare and Fitzgerald, which now figures on the official seal of the 
Provosts of Youghal (Clare.: "Or, three chevrons gules." Fitz- 
gerald : "Argent, a saltire gules, with a label of five points in 
chief.") Both these coats are halved, the result from the mar- 
riage of Richard Clare, Earl of Hereford, with Juliana, daughter 
and heir of Maurice Fitzgerald, feudal lord of Inchiqum and 
Youghal. 

The County of Montgomery, Wales, was named after Roger de 
Montgomery, who was made Earl of Arundel and Shrewsbury, 
and conquered a large scope of Welsli territory. He built the 
Castle of Shrewsbury, though the old keep is now the only part 
remaining that belonged to the Montgomery regime. His daugh- 
ter married Fitz Hamon, and their daughter married Henry of 
Gloucester, son of King Henry I of England. After the unfor- 
tunate contest between King Henry and the Montgomeries, who 
espoused the cause of Henry's brother, Robert of Normandy, 
which resulted in the banishment of the Montgomeries and the 
confiscation of their estates, Pembroke was given to De Saer, and 
from thence passed to Gerald de Windsor. 



200 



- >. • .-. ■ -" * 

■■ - i - > -• - -^f- 



■ 






• 



IV? 






; 



- 




MARSH FARM. CHESTER CO.. PA. 




THE WYXXES COME TO AMERICA. 

THOMAS WYNNE'S early years were passed in the wild 
Welsh country, in the ordinary walks of life. His father 
died when he was eleven years old, and although the inclinations 
of the child were strongly set towards the career of a physician, 
yet by reason of the financial condition of the family he was forced 
to take up a trade in order to procure means wherewith to study 
medicine. This trade was that of a cooper, at which he became au 
adept. About the year 1655-7, in the time of the Commonwealth, 
and after the wars between Parliament and King Charles I 
had resulted in the dethronement and death of the latter, and 
after public affairs had quieted down, young Thomas met and 
married his first wife, Martha Buttall. At this period religious 
feeling was intense, and the Cromwellian struggle had given life 
and vitality to many new and independent sects who were ex- 
ceedingly fervent in proselyting, under the tolerant policy of 
the great Commoner. Among these there were none more 
fervent than the Society of Friends, called by outsiders 
''Quakers." George Fox had started his movement auspiciously, 
calling the people "to give sincere and earnest heed to the inner 
light — the light of Christ — which God had placed in every hu- 
man heart." There was great independence in religious thought, 
and the Buttalls were affiliated with the Independents. They 
were identified with the town of Wrexham, and during the mis- 
sionary trip and preaching of Fox in Wales they joined his 
church and became active workers therein. At Wrexham, 
Thomas Wynne became acquainted with a celebrated Friends 
minister, John ap John, and himself became converted and 



203 



joined the society's church there. Mention is made in Posse's 
Sufferings, of "One Thomas Gwyn (Wynne) and others who 
were caught in their own hired house, and taken to the gaol at 
Writhem." 

Thomas and Martha Wynne had five daughters and one son, 
all born in Wales. They were: 

Mary, born in 1659, married Dr. Edward Jones in 1GT7, in 
Wales. 

Tabitha, married and removed to London. The name of her 
husband or progeny are unknown. 

Rebecca, born 1662, came to Pennsylvania, married Solomon 
Thomas, March, 1GS5, no issue; married John Dickinson, July 
23, 1692. 

Sidney, married Oct. 20, 1090, to William Chew, of Arundel 
county, Maryland. 

Hannah, married at Merion, Pa., Aug. 25, 1695, to Daniel 
Humphreys, at that time one of the largest landowners in the 
colony. 

Jonathan, the only son and youngest child. He married about 
1694/ at Philadelphia, Miss Sarah Greaves, (or Graves). 

About the year 1670 Martha Wynne died. She was the mother 
of all'of Thomas Wynne's children. A few years after her death, 
he married a widow, Elizabeth Rowden. The latter died prior 
to the summer of 1676; and on the 20th day of May, 1676, Dr. 
Wynne married Elizabeth Maud, another widow, a person pos- 
sessing considerable property and belonging to an influential 
family of Flintshire. Dr. Wynne then resided at Carwys. Dr. 
Wynne became a minister of the Society of Friends, and appears 
to have preached and traveled in various places in Wales and Eng- 
land. He published in 1677 a pamphlet or "Tract on the An- 
tiquity of Quakers." A writer named William Jones published 
a reply to this tract, and embellished his writing by printing a 
cartoon representing ''Thomas Wynne tempted by the devil." Dr. 
Wynne replied to this pamphlet by another tract in 1679. Copies 
of the original edition of Dr. Wynne's are preserved in the 
Friends Library, Philadelphia, and are highly prized. Following 
is a reproduction of the title pages of these tracts, together with 
some extracts from their texts, which will throw some light upon 
the early life and surroundings of young Wynne. 

204 




RACHEL WYNNE ZEUBLIN AND HUSBAND 



Dr. Thomas Wynnes First Tract. 



Antiquity of the Quakers 

Proved Out of the Sckiptures of Teuth. 

Published in Love to tlio Papists, Protestants, Presbyterians, 

Independents and Anabaptists, With a Salutation of 

Pure Love to All the Tender-Hearted 

Welshmen. 

But More Especially to Flintshire, Denbighshire, Carnar- 
vonshire and Anailesea. 



By Their Countryman and Friend, Thomas Wynne. 



Mat. 7 : 14. —Narrow is the way which leadeth to Life, and few there be 
that find it. 

Psalm 1 : 1. — Blessed is the man that walketh not in the counsel of the 
ungodly, nor standeth in the way of sinners, nor sitteth in the seat of the 
scornful. 

1 Thess. 5 : 21. — Prove all things, but hold fast that which is good. 



Printed in the year 1677. 
207 



Dr. Thomas Wynne's Second Book. 



Anti-Christian Conspiracy Detected 

AND 

Satan's Champion Defeated: 

Being a Reply to an Envious and Scoeeilods Libel, 
Without Any Xajie to It. 



WORK FOR A COOPER 

Being Also a Vindication or My Book, Entitled, The 
Antiquity of the Quakers, 



Fhom the Base Insinuations, False Doctrine and False 

Charges Therein Contained Against Me, My Book, 

and Against God's People, Called Quakers, 

in General. 



Bine Thomas Wynne. 

Printed in the year 1679. 
208 




JONATHAN WYNNE ZEUBLIN. PENDLETON. IND. 



EXTRACTS FROM DS. WYNNE S SECOSD TKACT. 

"It's known to many now living in this my native country 
wherein I live (and it being also near the place where 1 was 
born), that my genius from a child did lead me to surgery, 
insomuch that before I was ten years old, 1 several times over- 
ran my school and home when I heard of any one's being wounded 
or hurt, and used all my endeavors then to set fractures and dis- 
locations reduced, and wounds dressed, and have been so long 
missing, that my parents thought they had lost me, for which I 
underwent severe correction, and the troublesome times being then, 
my parents sustained great plunder, and my father died before I 
was eleven years old, and my mother not being then able to pro- 
duce so great a sum of money as to set me to chirurgery, I betook 
myself to this honest and necessary calling he upbraids me with 
(cooper), with several other things that in those days pleased my 
mind ; yet during all this time, I left no opportunity to inform 
myself in the practice of Ghyrurgery, and continued this until I 
became acquainted with an honest Friend and good Artist in 
Chyrurgery, whose name was Richard Moore of Salop, who seeing 
my forwardness to Chyrurgery, did further me in it, and brought 
me to Defections in Salop ; the Anatomists being men of known 
worth in practice, whose names are Dr. Needham and Dr. Hallins, 
Who at this day are doubtless of deserved repute in their profes- 
sions (in England), and I being then expert in drills, and handy 
in Knife and Lancet and other instruments for that purpose, I 
set on making a Spelliton of a man's hones, which I only with 
the assistance of Richard Moore performed to their content, at 
which time they thought me tit to be licensed the practice of 
Chyrurgy; and this is near 20 years ago, and soon after I being 
taken prisoner to Denbigh, where I remained a prisoner near six 
years for the testimony of Jesus. I then betook myself wholly to 
the practice of Chyrurgy, and God was good to me in my under- 
takings, to Him he the glory forever. And why then did not my 
envious adversary to the aforesaid instruments have added the 
Plaister Box and Salvatory, the Trafine and Head Saw, the Am- 
putation Saw, and the Catling, the Cautery Sirring and Catheter, 
with many more which with God's assistance I have used with 
good success, for the space of near 20 years last past (which was 



211 



near thrice as long as I used those lie speaks of) to tlie great com- 
fort of many, some of them, their limbs gangrened, others frac- 
tured, others dislocated, others desperately wounded by Gun 
Shots, others pierced thorow with Rapiers, others with Ulcers and 
Fistulas and Cancers, which I extertated, and by God's assistance 
cured, yea, many scores are living monuments of God's Mercy to 

this day, who were spectacles of great misery in these respects. 
* * * 

THE COXCJ.rsiOX TO THE WELSH. 

Y cymry anwyl cynor yr apostol oedd at bawb yd dynt brafi 
pob peth a glynu wrth y pcth fvdda, ag nid wgf yii disyfy dim 
yngwaneg-genych : Agos gwnei di velly yd dy gydwybod a ynno 
anwyl a cei di wir far no wreiddin y doeth lythur ar atebwr. 

T. W." 

POSTSCRIPT BY WILLIAM GIBSON. 

"Thomas Wynn is known amongst his neighbors to be a sober, 
honest man. 1 have known him for above 20 yrs last past, and I 
never knew or heard other of him, till this profane scoffer's pam- 
phlet appeared against him. 

"London, the 25th of 8th month, 1670." 

It is supposed that Dr. Wynne was a graduate of Oxford or 
Cambridge, as the name appears upon the roll of both colleges — 
one in 1667, and the other in 1670. In 16S2, Dr. Wynne and 
others went as a committee to visit the English government at 
Whitehall, to try to secure an amelioration of the laws against 
Quakers. At this time he was a resident of Bronvadog, near 
Caerwys. In 1682, he evidently made up his mind to leave the 
old sod and seek greater liberty in the new world, as we find him 
in conjunction with John ap John, effecting the purchase from 
William Penn of five thousand acres of land in Pennsylvania, to 
be laid out in the Welsh tract adjoining Philadelphia. It is sup- 
posed that his daughter, .Mary, and her husband, Dr. Edward 
Jones, had already emigrated to America, and it is likely that 
their letters home had much to do with influencing the decision 
of Dr. Wynne. 

At any rate, he took passage along with William Penn in the 
good ship "Welcome,'' which sailed from Bristol about the 10th 
of September, 1682, with a hundred passengers for Penn's Colony 

212 






- 






SAMUEL WYNNE. CHESTER CO.. f A. 



in America, and which reached Xew Castle, Pa., on the 24th of 
October, same year. Smallpox broke out on board ship soon after 
leaving England, and about one-third of the company died from 
its ravages. In that age, of course, medical science had few means 
with which to tight the dread scourge, and although Dr. Wynne, 
the only physician aboard, did everything possible to mitigate the 
disease, yet the trip was one of much suffering for everyone 
aboard. There is still extant a legal instrument witnessed by 
Dr. Wynne during the voyage, being the will of Thomas Ileriott, 
who died at sea Sept. 19, 1G82. The private seal, used upon this 
occasion by Dr. Wynne, represents a "three-towered castle," and 
may have represented the particular branch of the Wynne family 
to which the owner belonged. 

Following is. a list of the passengers on this ship during this 
memorable voyage. It presents a collection of people who are as 
important as those who landed from the Mayflower on Plymouth 
Rock, or those who effected the settlements on the James river, in 
Virginia : 

William Penn. 

John Barber and Elizabeth, his wife, eldest daughter of John 
Longhurst, of Shipley, Sussex county, England. 

William Bradford (printer) of Leicester, Eng. 

William Brucknian, Mary, his wife, and children, Sarah and 
Mary, of Billinghurst, Sussex, Eng. 

John Carver, and Mary, his wife, of Hertfordshire. 

Benjamin Chambers, of Rochester, Kent. 

Thomas Chroasdale and Agnes, his wife, and six children. 

Ellen Cowgill and family. 

John Fisher, Margaret, his wife, and son John. 

Thomas Fitzwater and sons, Thomas and George, of Ham- 
worth, Middlesex. His wife, Mary, and children, Josiah and 
Mary, died on passage. 

Thomas Gillett, John Hey, Richard Ingelo, Joshua Morris. 

William Lushington, Hannah Mogdridge, George Thompson. 

Arthur Havhurst, his wife and family. 

Thomas Heriott, of Hurst Pier, Sussex. Died. 

Isaac Ingram, of Gatton, Surrey. 

Giles Knight, Mary, his wife, and son, Joseph, of Gloucester. 

David Ogden, probably of London. 



Evan Oliver, with Jeanc, his wife, and children — David, Eliza- 
beth, John, Hannah, Mary, Evan and Seaborn, of Radnorshire, 
Wales. 

Thomas Pearson, of Cheshire. 

John Rowland and Priscilla, his wife, of Sussex. 

John Longhurst, from Chillington, Sussex. 

John Stackhoiise and wife, Margery, of Yorkshire. 

Richard Townsend, wife Anna and son James — born on the 
Welcome, in the Delaware river — from London. 

William Wade, of Parish Hankton, Sussex. 

Thomas Walmesly, Elizabeth, his wife, and six children, of 
Yorkshire, England. 

Nicholas Wain, Yorkshire, Joseph Woodroofe. 

Thomas Wrightsworth and wife, of Yorkshire. 

Thomas Wyxxk, chirurgeon, of Cacrwys, Flintshire, Xorth 
Wales. 

Jeane Matthews, William Smith, Hannah Townsend, daughter 
of Richard Townsend. Dennis Rochford of Emstorfey, Wexford, 
Ireland, and his wife Mary, daughter of John lleriott, with their 
daughters, Grace and Mary, who died at sea. 

Soon after the arrival of Dr. Thomas Wynne in Pennsylvania 
— at a preliminary meeting held at Chester on Nov. 4, 1682 — he 
and two others were appointed a committee to ask the Proprietor, 
William Penn, to grant a constitution to the Colony. 

He was present at the first Monthly meeting of the Society of 
Friends held in Philadelphia, Nov. 9, 1682. In this connection 
it may be mentioned that he was selected as one of a building com- 
mittee to select a site and erect a meeting house, for the Society. 
This was accomplished successfully, and the edifice built on a 
lot bought of Thomas Halme on the northwest corner of Front 
and Mulberry, nee Halme, streets in 1085. It was called the Bank 
Meeting House and was the first Friends church in America. It 
served the Society for some years. It was a wooden structure 
of very primitive construction, and in 169S had become so dilapi- 
dated that it was considered dangerous and was pulled down to 
avoid accident. It was replaced in 1703 by another house of 
worship on the same lot — being a reconstruction of Center Square 
Meeting House, which had stood upon a part of the present City 
Hall site. 



216 




JOSEPH WYNNE. INDIANA 



In the History of Philadelphia it is stated that "among the first 
brick houses built was that of Thomas Wynne. It was located on 
Front street, west side, above Chestnut street." In fact, Chestnut 
street was originally named Wynne street, and only after the 
determination was arrived at to name the east and west streets 
after varieties of forest trees was the name changed to Chestnut. 
It is now the principal fashionable shopping street in the city. 

At the first regular Assembly of the Colony, held at Philadel- 
phia, Jan. 12, 1683, Dr. Wynne was chosen Speaker. He was 
one of the Representatives from Philadelphia county, the Assem- 
bly being composed of nine members from each of the counties 
of Philadelphia, Chester, Rucks, Xew Castle, Kent and Sussex. 
Of course, it should be understood that the county boundaries at 
that time were very much more extensive than they are at present. 

In the account of the marriage of his step-daughter, Elizabeth 
Rowden, to John Broeh, May 1, 1684, mention is made of the 
prospective departure of Thomas Wynne and wife for England, 
and it is believed they went over with Penn in the ketch "En- 
deavor," which sailed from Philadelphia, June 12, 1CS4, and 
reached England in seven weeks. During his stay there "he with 
twenty-three others were on their way to the meeting-house at 
White-Hart-Court, London, and were arrested in Angel Court 
and sent to prison." The charge was "riotous assemblage" — 
which seems strange when made against devout Quakers — but by 
perjured evidence they were sent to Newgate and fined. It is not 
known how long he remained in England; but when he returned 
to the Colony he settled on an estate at Lewes. Here he served 
as Justice of the Peace, being appointed March 3, lfiST. In 16SS 
he served as Representative from Sussex county in the Assembly 
at Philadelphia. On May G, same year, his name appears as 
witness to the marriage of the daughter of Thomas Lloyd, Deputy 
Governor of the Province. In 1691, Dr. Wynne was in Phila- 
delphia. He attended the Monthly Meeting there, November and 
December. 

He made his will Jan. 16, 1(;;>2. This was probated Feb. 20, 
1602, at Philadelphia. (Book A, page 200;) Soon after making 
his will he was taken sick and died at the age of sixty-two years. 
He was buried in Friends Cemetery, Philadelphia, Jan. 17, 1692. 
His will bequeaths to his wife, Elizabeth Wynne, during life, and 

219 



after death to his son, Jonathan, his messuage and plantation near 
the town of Lewes. lie also gives to his son, Jonathan, the plan- 
tation of two hundred acres at Cedar Creek, in Sussex county. 
He gives one-half of his personal estate to his children in America, 
viz.: Jonathan, Mary, Rebecca, Sidney and Hannah. His 
daughter, Tabitha, was living in England; he gave her fifty shil- 
lings as a last mark of love, she having already been provided for. 
The other half of his personal estate he bequeathed to his wife, 
Elizabeth, whom he makes executrix; and "makes his friends, 
Thomas Lloyd, Deputy Governor of this Province, and Griffith 
Owen, to be overseers." The inventories value the plantation and 
mansion at Lewes at eighty pounds, and the two hundred acres at 
Cedar Creek ai twenty pounds. A negro man, a negro woman and 
a negro child one and a half years old are value at sixty pounds ; 
one servant youth, with one aud a half years to serve, three 
pounds. The total inventory foots up £430, Is, 3d. 

Dr. Thomas Wynne was a man of strong mind, broad views 
and sterling integrity. That he possessed the confidence of his 
neighbors, the many positions of responsibility and authority be- 
stowed upon him most thoroughly attest. His life began amid the 
narrow surrounding of a clannish Welsh life, broadened into a 
cosmopolitan career amid royal courts and colonial assemblies, 
embracing two hemispheres ; and through all his acts appears the 
indications of calm judgment and wholesome common sense. He 
was the worthy American ancestor of the family, and as such we 
may proudly regard him. The following article regarding him, 
which appeared in Vol. 27 of the Philadelphia Friend, we repro- 
duce as tending to show the estimation in which he was held by 
cotemporaries: 

THOMAS WY8FE. 

"Thomas Wynne, before his removal to America, resided at 
Caerwis, in Flintshire, North Wales. lie was early convinced of 
the Truth, and was an able minister of the gospel of Christ. In 
1681, we find Richard Davies, calling upon his "friend Thomas 
Wynne," who lived not far from Bishop Lloyd's residence, and 
obtaining his company in a visit to that dignitary. In the begin- 
ning of 10S2, about the time of London Yearling Meeting, 
Charles Llovd, Thomas Wvnne, Richard Davies, George White- 




HOME OF JOHN WYNNE. CRAWFORD CO.. OHIO 



head and others, called on Lord Hyde about the Sufferings of 
Friends in England, particularly at Bristol, and had a satisfactory 
opportunity. "The number of prisoners on a list delivered to 
Lord Hyde, to he presented to the king, amounted to one hundred 
and thirty-nine; of which there were eighteen aged women, from 
sixty and upwards, and eight children. In the latter end of the list 
it was said, "Blessed are the merciful for they shall obtain mercy.' " 

Soon after Yearly Meeting, Thomas Wynne must have sailed 
for America. He was at the first Monthly .Meeting held in Phila- 
delphia, Eleventh Month 9th, 1682, and was one of those ap- 
pointed to select a sight for a .Meeting House, and to consider the 
manner and form of the building. He was elected one of the 
First Assembly of the Province, which met at. Chester, 10th Mo. 
4th, 16S2, and of the second, which assembled in Philadelphia, 
First Month 12th, and again Eighth Month, 1683. Of this last 
Assembly he was chosen speaker. His husiness in Philadelphia 
appears to have heen that of a surveyor; and he was, according 
to Proud, *'a person of note and good character." Whiting says 
that he was "An ancient, eminent public Friend." 

Before his removal to America, he had employed his pen in 
defense of the Truth he professed. His first essay as an author 
was printed in 1077, and was entitled, "The Antiquity of the 
Quakers Proved Out of the Scriptures of Truth." This brought 
forth an antagonist with an abusive attack on the hook and the 
Quakers. The title of this attack, as we learn from Thomas 
Wynne's reply to it, was, "Work for a Cooper." In 1679, Thomas 
came out with a defense and answer to his opponent twice as large 
as his original work. Tt was called, "An Anti-Christian Con- 
spiracy Detected, and Satan's Champion Defeated ; being a Reply 
to an Envious, Scurrilous Libel, called Work for a Cooper, etc." 

In America he was much employed in religious matters, as well 
as in public affairs. He was one appointed by his brethren to 
prepare a brief, yet full account of the order of Society in the 
meetings for Discipline in England, that it might he for the gov- 
ernment of the meetings here. The various religious services in 
which In- was employed, indicate that he had not permitted the 
public affairs in which he was necessarily engaged to eat out his 
living concern for the Truth, or to interfere with his religious 
duties. In the 5th Month, l«',s4, he laid before his Friends, at 

223 



their Monthly Meeting, a prospect he had of paying a visit with 
his wife to England, on business, and requesting their consent. 
The Meeting considering the matter agreed thereto, and directed 
a certificate to he prepared to Friends in "England, Wales and 
elsewhere," signifying that Friends were consenting to his de- 
parture. 

Thomas Wynne had married a widow, Elizabeth Tiowden, and 
a daughter of her's of the same name of the mother, being about 
accomplishing her marriage with John Brock, the parents delayed 
sailing until the Oth Month, that they might lie with them on that 
important occasion. Edward Jones, a valuable friend from the 
other side of the Schuylkill, belonging to what was afterwards 
called Harford or Haverford Monthly Meeting, had married, it 
appears, another daughter of Elizabeth Rowden, or one of Thomas 
Wynne's. We find this extract given in Proud, under date 16S3, 
as a note to William Penn's account of the Province: "Edward 
Jones, son-in-law to Thomas Wynne, living on the Sculkil, had, 
with ordinary cultivation, for one grain of English barley, seventy 
stalk and cars of barley : and it is common in this country, from 
one bushel sown, to reap forty, often fiity T and sometimes sixty, 
and three pecks of wheat sow an acre here." 

There is reason to believe that Thomas Wynne and wife accom- 
panied William Penn to England in the Ketch Endeavor, which 
sailed from Philadelphia mi the IL'th of the 6th Month, and which 
after a voyage of about seven weeks, made her port in England. 
We have little information respecting his labors iu that journey, 
but we find him in the Xinth Month, in London. On the 23rd of 
that month, his friend, William Gibson, who had written a post- 
script to his last publication, was buried. A meeting was held on 
this occasion in White-hart-Oourt Meeting House, and it was 
thought that more than one thousand persons attended the body to 
the burial place. At the grave it was publicly said of the body, 
"That it hail been often beaten and in prison for Christ's sake." 

Soon after this, Thomas Wynne and twenty-three others who 
were on their way to White-hart-Court Meeting House, being 
stopped in Angel-court, by the officers of the law, and there ar- 
rested, were committed to prison. On the Eighth of the Tenth 
Month, they were brought before the sessions at Gildhall, on the 
charge of being guilty of a riotous assembly with force and arms, 




WYNNE COKE FURNACES. FAYETTE CO.. PA. 



etc., in White-hart-Court. The prisoners plead not guilty. In the 
first place they had not been in White-hart-Conrt, as the evidence 
produced for the prosecution itself testified. This objection was 
overruled, on the ground that the place where they were arrested 
was in the same ward of the city. They then stated that their 
being together in Angel-court was not intentional, but accidental, 
as they had been stopped whilst passing through. The only evi- 
dence given against them was, that they were arrested in a com- 
mon thoroughfare when a woman spoke, the witness knew not 
what. Notwithstanding the errors in the charge, and the nature 
of the evidence, prisoners were all committed to Xewgate, and 
fined. 

How long Thomas Wynne remained in England we do not 
know; but on his return to America, he settled in Sussex, one of 
the three lower counties. To represent this county about the 
First of 16SS, he was elected to the Assembly, and was a diligent 
and efficient member thereof. That body met in Philadelphia, 
3rd Month 10th, 16SS, and continued its sittings until the 19th, 
and in that short period transacted much business. On all the 
most important committees, Thomas Wynne was one, and perhaps 
on account of his age and experience, was generally named first. 
During the meeting of the Assembly, wc find him pleading before 
Council, against one of the rangers of Sussex county, who had 
killed a poor man's hogs as he thought unrighteously, if not un- 
lawfully. 

On the Sixth of the Fifth Month, Kachel Lloyd, a daughter of 
Thomas Lloyd, Deputy Governor of the Province, was married to 
Samuel Preston. The marriage was accomplished at a meeting 
held at the house of Frances Cornwall, in Sussex, and Thomas 
Wynne, his wife and children were among the signers of the cer- 
tificate. Probably this was the meeting to which they then be- 
longed. In the Eleventh Month, 10SO, he was appointed one of 
the justices of the peace for Sussex county, which office he seems 
to have held until he returned to Philadelphia to reside, towards 
the close of the year 1691. He was at the Monthly Meeting in 
the latter place in the Eleventh Month, and on the Twenty-sixth 
of the Twelfth Month, of that year, and the appointments of his 
brethren manifested that they still had a high opinion of his 
weight and judgment. In less than three weeks after his last 

227 



meeting, his earthly course terminated. Ripe in years, and rich 
in the respect of his fellow citizens, lie was translated with short 
illness from his earthly scene id" lahor, to receive the reward of 
faithful dedication to the Lord's service. lie was buried at 
Philadelphia, First Month, 17th. 1C,!)2. 

The following episode, which came so near changing the history 
of the Wynne family, is inserted as throwing light upon the 
dangers attending even the godliest lives in early colonial days: 

"Opinions id' William l'i nn have differed. It is doubtful, 
however, if the founder of Pennsylvania was ever more savagely 
criticised than by one who was noted for his piety, whose whole 
life was passed in the efforts to do good unto his fellow men, and 
whose erudition was conspicuous, he having made uncommon 
progress in Latin, Greek and Hebrew at the age of twelve. Later 
in life, in order to enlarge his field of usefulness, he went on 
studying French, Spanish and the Iroquois Indian tongue, that he 
might preach and write in these languages to those he was likely 
to meet or reach by his writings. 

'"This man was Cotton Mather, D. D., son of Increase Mather, 
and he was horn at Boston. Feb. 12, 1663. He was notorious 
for his belief in witchcraft, and for the persecutions he provoked 
against those charged with it by his zeal in spreading the delusion. 
Xo doubt this trait of character accounts for the views he ex- 
pressed in a letter, which is now among the treasured possessions 
of the Massachusetts Historical Society. His zeal and his esti- 
mate of Papa Penn are perhaps host example! by the following 
quaint letter which he wrote in 1GS1: 

Mather's qveek lettek. 

"' 'To the aged and beloved John Higginson: 

"'There he now at sea a shipp (for our friend Elias Flolcroft 
of London did advise me by the last pack* t that it would he some 
time in August) called the Welcome, which has aboard it a hun- 
dred or more of the hereticks and malignants called Quakers, with 
William Penn, the scamp, at the head of them. The General 
Court has accordingly sriven secret orders to Master Malachi 
Haxett of the brig Porpoise to wavlav said Welcome as near the 
end ot Cod as may be and make captives of Penn and his 
ungodly crew, so that the Lord may be glorified and not mocked 

228 




. 



- 



OLD WYNNE HOMESTEAD-WALTER LAUGHEAD. AT OLIPHANT 
FURNACE. PA. 



on the soil of this new country with the heathen worshipps of these 
people. Much spoil may be made by selling the whole lot to Bar- 
badoes, where slaves fetch good prices in runiinc and sugar, and 
wc shall not only do the Lord great service by punishing the 
wicked, hut shall make great gayne for His ministers and people. 
" 'Yours in the bonds of Christ, Cottox Matiiek.' " 

NOTES. 

It has been suggested by some authorities that the John ap 
John, who was a partner with Dr. Thomas Wynne in the purchase 
of Pennsylvania lands, was really the latter's elder brother; but 
if such is the fact it cannot be verified. Thatcher's American 
Medical Biography of Boston, 1S2S, savs: "Thomas Wynne, an 
eminent Welsh physician, who had practiced medicine several 
years with high reputation in London, and his brother came to 
this country in 1GS2. With the original settlers they located 
themselves in Philadelphia and were the earliest physicians of 
that city." In the records at Philadelphia the following appears: 
"The Proprietary by deed of lease and release dated July 14, 
1681, grant to John ap John and Thomas Wynne, their heirs, 
&c, 5,000 acres." Another record shows: "5th mo., 7th, 1GS2. — 
John ap John of the Parish of Ruabon, in County of Denbigh, 
yeoman, and Thomas Wynne of Caerwys, County Flint, chirur- 
geon, conveys, &c." These several accounts are conflicting. A 
family descended from John Wynne, "who was a brother of Dr. 
Thomas Wynne, who came to Philadelphia in ship Welcome," is 
reported in Virginia. A son of this John was killed by Indians 
in Virginia a few years later. Watson's Annals of Philadelphia 
mentions that a brother of Dr. Thomas Wynne came to this 
country. "This may have lwn John Wynne, who was on a jury 
in 16S7 in Sussex county. Same man appears as attorney in a 
case reported in Sussex County Court records of same year." 
There was a Dr. John Wynne, whose will was probated in An- 
napolis, Md., in 1684. * 

A Thomas Wynne was in Maryland in 1071. ' lie was a sub- 
sheriff in 1G7S, and Doorkeeper of Colonial Assembly. He was 
son of Gruffydd Wynn of Bryn yr Owen ap Richard ap John 
Wynn of Trefechan, near Wrexham and Ruabon, Denbighshire. 



231 



In Conway i- pointed out the Castle of Plas-Hawr, built by 
Robert Wynne in 1."> S ">, and at which Queen Elizabeth was enter- 
tained; now occupied by Earl of Mostyn, a descendant. 

The third wife of Dr. Thomas Wynne was a sister of his first 
wife. 

The log-book of the ship Submission begins Sept. G, and ends 
Oct. 2, 10^2: "Landed at Chaptants Bay; passengers, (among 
others) Rebecca Wynne, age 20, dau. of Dr. Wynne." 

Thomas and Elizabeth Wynne obtained deed to Fisher's Island 
in Broadkill marshes, in (Delaware) county, containing 175 
acres, to be confirmed. 

Dr. Thomas Wynne once preached at Merion (Pa.) Meeting 
of Friends. While William Penn was riding across country to 
attend this meeting he overtook a maiden walking barefoot, carry- 
ing her shoes, as was the custom. He invited her to a seat behind 
him on the horse. She accepted, but when near the church told 
him she would have to alight to put on her shoes, and asked his 
name that she might thank him. When she learned with whom 
she was riding, she said that if she could ride barefoot with the 
governor she would go on and hear the preaching in the same 
condition. 




JONATHAN WYNNE. CRAWFORD CO.. OHIO 




AMERICAN WYNNES. 

THE only son of Dr. Thomas Wynne was, as we have seen, 
Jonathan Wynne, who was also the youngest child. Ac- 
cording to his father's will, he received the major portion of the 
family estate, to-wit: The reversion of the plantation at Lewes, 
Suffolk county, Pa., subject to his step-mother's life interest, the 
Cedar Creek plantation of two hundred acres in Suffolk, and an 
equal share with the other children in one-half of the personal 
estate of his father. It is not conclusively known when Jonathan 
was born, but it is known that he was born in Wales, and that he 
came to America with his sister Mary and her husband, Dr. Ed- 
ward Jones, in 1681, preceding his father's immigratiou by nearly 
a year. In 169-i he was married in Philadelphia to Miss Sarah 
Greaves, or Graves, and he settled on a tract of land belonging to 
him a few miles northwest of Philadelphia, at a point uow em- 
braced in the beautiful suburb of Wynnfield. Here in 1701 he 
built a substantial stone dwelling, an illustration of which is 
shown elsewhere in this volume, and christened the plantation or 
estate, "Wynnestaye," which is a favorite appellation for manors 
in Wales. The "staye" signifies in Gaelic, "field" or "ditch." 
Put little is known of his general life. We find him mentioned a 
few times in public documents. Tor instance: In 1705 Jonathan 
Wynne enters a petition to the Committee on Public Property, 
asserting that he is the heir of Dr. Thomas Wynne, and that his 
father had never taken up all of the original purchase of five 
thousand acres which he had bought of William Penn while still 
a resi<lent of Wales; and praying an investigation of the same, and 
in case such should prove to be the fact, that the residue should be 



235 



forthwith set off. On the 18th day of 4th month, 170."., the com- 
mittee issued the following mandate to the Colonial Surveyor: 

"These are to authorize and require thee to survey and lay out 
to the said Jonathan Wynne, tliu said quantity of four hundred 
acres of land in the Welsh Tract, if there to lie found vacant, or 
elsewhere, according to the Methods of Townships, where not sur- 
veyed, or seated hy the Indians; and make returns by a copy of 
this, certified by the secretary into the Surveyor General's Office; 
which said survey, in ease the said Jonathan Wynn hath a right to 
so much yet untaken up shall be valid, otherwise shall he void and 
of no effect. (liven under our hands and Province Seal at Phila- 
delphia the 18th of 4th Mo,, 1705. 

To David Powell, Edw. Shippen. 

Surveyor. Griffith Owen. 

Jas. Logan." 

We also find in the minutes of Merion Preparative Meeting of 
Friends, 2nd of 4th Mo., 1 704, the following extract: "Jonathan 
Wynne being also desirous to join with Friends in their Collec- 
tion, being likewise brought up among Friends, is also left to his 
freedom." 

In the list of marriages kept by the Radnor Monthly Meeting, 
it appears that Jonathan Wynne was a witness to the following 
marriages which occurred at .Merion: 

"26th of 10th .Mo. 1699 — John CadAvalader and Martha Jones." 
" tith of 10th Mo. 1699 -Robert Fletcher and Elizabeth John." 
" 4th of 8th Mo. 17(>r. — Fonathan Jones and Gainor Owens." 

The- Joneses were bis nephew and niece, being the children of 
bis sister Mary. From minutes of Radnor Monthly Meeting, 11th 
Mo., 1712, appears this extract : "It is desired that the overseers 
of .Merion Meeting continue their care in relation, to Jonathan 
Wynne." And again in the minutes of the 12th of 12th Mo., 
171-']: "It is desired that the overseers of [Merion Meeting con- 
tinue their care in relation to Jonathan Wynne.'' 

Glenn, in bis history of Merion, says that it appears that 
Jonathan Wynne settled in Blockley township, which was formerly 
a part of the Liberty Lands of Philadelphia, at an early date. 
Whether the bouse, "Wynnestaye," which be built in 1701, was 
erected on land purchased by him personally, or upon part of the 
Liberty Lands belonging to bis father's joint purchase with John 

236 




THOMAS WYNNE. OF TEXAS 



ap John, is not known. It is presumed to be the latter, as Dr. 
Thomas Wynne owned considerable land in this part of the coun- 
try, and he received grant of 250 acres in Radnor township May 
29, 1 004. 

To Jonathan Wynne and his wife Sarah were born three sons 
and fonr (laughter-., Thomas, John or Jonathan, Hannah, Mary, 
Sidney, .Martha and Elizabeth. The father appears to have died 
in 1721, but it is not definitely known. His will was executed 
Jail. 29, 1719, and was probated at Philadelphia, May 17, 1721. 
By the provisions of his will he leaves to his eldest son, Thomas, 
all the home plantation after the death or second marriage of his 
widow; to his son John, two hundred and fifty acres near the 
"Great Valley" (Chester Valley); to his son Jonathan, two hun- 
dred and fifty acres in the same locality; to his two eldest daugh- 
ters, Hannah and Mary, lot in High street, Philadelphia — 60x300 
feet — to be equally divided; to his three youngest daughters, Sid- 
ney, Martha and Elizabeth, four hundred acres near the Great 
Valley, or "in the great meadows," to be equally divided, with 
power to sell at eighteen or marriage. He made his brothers-in- 
law, Edward Jones and Daniel Humphreys, his trustees, and in 
case of their decease, John Cadwalader and Jonathan Jones. His 
wife Sarah was made executrix. It would seem that the bulk of 
Mr. Wynne's landed estate lay in Chester county, which was being 
largely settled by Welsh colonists. In the records of that county, 
we find that Jonathan Wynne, a non-resident, was assessed on one 
thousand acres in Nantmel township, in 1720, and again, on the 
same tract, the valuation was put on it of £30 to the same parly. 
In the first assessment the name appears Gwynne, corrected to 
"Wynne," showing that the two names are synonyms, the G being 
left out in the English spelling, the pronunciation being the same. 
Nothing is mentioned in his will of the Cedar Creek or Lewes 
plantations, which descended to him from his father, and it seems 
probable that he sold these properties and invested in the new and 
booming territory of Chester county. As this district became in a 
way the home of many descendants of the race in America, a de- 
scription of the county might be appreciated. 

Chester county is one of the three original counties established 
by William Penn in 1682, and included at that time Delaware 
county and all of the territory (except the small portion now in 

239 



Philadelphia county) southwest of the Schuylkill to the extreme 
limits of the province. Lancaster was separated in 1729, Berks 
(partly formed from Chester) in 1752 and Delaware in 17S9. 
Length -*!7 miles, breadth 20 miles, area 738 square miles. 

The county embraces every variety of soil and surface. The 
northern part is rugged, the Welsh mountains, a sandstone chain 
of considerable elevation, belonging to the lower secondary forma- 
tion, forms the northwestern boundary. A wide belt of red shale 
and sandstone and a considerable area of gneiss roek lies to the 
south of the mountain, and to this succeeds the Xorth Valley hill. 
The "Great Valley" of primitive limestone forms the most dis- 
tinguishing feature of the county and constitutes one of its greatest 
sources of wealth. This valley; which is generally two to three 
miles wide, crosses the county a little north of the center in a south- 
west and northeast direction. Tt is shut in on both sides by parallel 
hills of moderate elevation, and from either of these the whole 
width of the valley may he comprehended at a glance; presenting, 
with its white cottages and broad, fertile, highly cultivated farms 
and smiling villages, one of the most lovely scenes in the United 
States. It must have received its name of "Great" in the earlier 
days of the province, when the greater limestone valleys of the 
Kitatinny and those among the mountains were unknown. 

To the south of the valley lies extensive primitive formation 
covering the whole southern section of the county, and forming a 
gently undulating country with occasionally a few abrupt eleva- 
tions. 

The principal streams are the Brandywine, Elk creek and 
Oetarara creek, running southwesterly, ami Pikerings creek. Val- 
ley creek, French creek and Pidgeon creek, tributaries of the 
Schuylkill. 

Excellent roads cross the county in all directions, of which the 
principal are the Lancaster turnpike, the Downington and Har- 
risburg turnpike, the Strasburg road and the Chadsford road. 

The early Welsh occupied the eastern part of the county. 

Chester county received its name in the following manner: 
When William Pcnn first arrived at Upland, now Old Chester, 
turning around to his friend Pearson, one of his own society, who 
had accompanied him in the ship Welcome, he said, "Providence 
has brought us here safely. Thou hast been the companion of my 

240 



f\ ■ '■'■' ■ ' / 

ft ' £ : . ■ 



- ■; 



1 



■ ■ ■.-: . ' 
■ 



.->&& 



.7T I 



. . ' . •■- 






i 
i 






- 



WYNNEFIELD. ILLINOIS 



perils. What wilt thou that I shall call this place ?" Pearson re- 
plied, '"Chester, in remembrance of the city from which I came." 
Penn also decreed that one comity should retain the name Chester 
after the territory was broken up." 

Chester county has some claims to consideration also oil account 
of some of her eminent sons. Easttown township was the birth- 
place and home of Gen. Anthony Wayne, of Revolutionary fame ; 
Cedar Croft, in East Marlborough township, is still shown as the 
home of Bayard Taylor, the great traveler and author, while 
Benjamin West, one of America's greatest, artists, was born and 
bred in Spring township. The battle of Brandywine was fought 
in this county, and the memorable camp of Valley Forge lies 
partly in Chester county. 

Of the other children of Dr. Thomas Wynne, we have only a 
limited amount of information. Mary, who was the eldest who 
came to America, was married to Dr. Edward Jones in Wales 
and came to America Aug. 10, 1681, with her husband and 
children. Dr. Jones was born in 1645 and was considerably older 
than his wife. In connection with John ap Thomas, he in com- 
pany with seventeen others, bought five thousand acres about 
Merlon. He kept only 312 acres for himself, however, near the 
Liberty Lands of Philadelphia. A part of this land is included 
in the present, limits of Fairmount Park, the buildings of the Cen- 
tennial Exposition of 1^76 being placed on lands formerly owned 
by the Wynne and Jones families. Both Dr. Jones and bis wife 
were devoted members of the Friends Church, the latter being an 
accepted minister of that denomination. Dr. Jones served in 
the Provincial Assembly, and also as justice of the peace. lie 
died in Merion, Dec. 26, 1737, and Mary, his wife, died July 20, 
173S. Both were buried at Merion. Their children were: 

1. Martha, born in Wales, married John Cadwalader. 

2. Jonathan, born in Wales in 16S0, married Gainer Owen 
April S, 1706. 

3. Edward, born at Merion, who with bis younger brothers 
inherited the original home estate. 

4. Thomas, born at Merion, had issue. 

5. Evan, born at Merion, married Mary Stephenson ; second 
wife was daughter of Col. Matthews of Fort Albany, X. Y. He 



243 



was the father of Dr. John Jones, the physician to Gen. George 
Washington. 

6. John, horn at Merion. 

7. Elizabeth, h<>rn at Merion, married Pees Thomas, Jr. 
S. Mary. 

Jonathan Jones, the eldest son of Dr. Edward and Mary 
Wynne Jones, purchased of his wife's brother, Evan Owens, the 
large estate upon which he afterwards built the famous mansion 
called Wynnewood, and named it after his grandfather, lie lived 
to he ninety years of age. The author in 11)05 paid a visit to this 
old manorial residence, located northwest of Philadelphia, around 
which has grown up the beautiful suburb of Wynnewood Manor. 
The old house was built about 1720, and named after Jh - . Thomas 
Wynne, the founder of the American branch of the Wynnes. It 
was originally built of stone, hut about the time of the Centennial 
Exposition in 1876 it was coated on the outside with "staff," 
really marring the beauty and venerable appearance of the his- 
toric edifice. It still presents a handsome appearance, and is sur- 
rounded with large and elaborate grounds. The present front of 
the building is really the rear as designed by the architect, a change 
of the highways having created this reversal of former conditions. 
The estate has, however, passed out of the hands of the Jones 
family quite recently, and is now owned by Messrs. Ed. and 
Robert Toland and used by them as a summer home. Strange to 
say, it is now known in the neighborhood as Penn's Cottage. 

Evan, the fourth son of Mary Wynne Jones, was the father of 
Dr. John Jones. It will be remembered how Dr. Thomas Wynne 
acted as the physician to that grand old character, William Tenn, 
founder of Pennsylvania, and his shipload of pestilence-stricken 
companions on board the good ship AVelcome on her voyage to the 
land of freedom. Tt is a remarkable coincidence that during that 
other trying time in the history of America, when the grand old 
Virginian, George Washington, was leading our armies through the 
troublous seas of a successful revolution, that a lineal descendant 
of Dr. Wynne should act as special physician to the "Eather of 
His Country,'" yet such is the case — Dr. John Jones acting as 
General Washington's personal physician during the campaigns 
in Pennsylvania and Xew York. 




T. B. DEEM. KNIGHTSTOWN. IND. 



Martha, the eldest child of Mary Wynne Jones, was married to 
John Cadwalader at Morion on Oct. 26, 1699. Mr. Cadwalader 

was the son of Thomas Cadwalader of Merioneth, Wales. lie 
was a highly respected citizen, and served in the Common Council 
of Philadelphia continuously from November, 1718, to January, 
17;!;i. lie died duly 24, 1734, and his wife followed him to the 
grave April 16, 1747. The offspring of this union were Thomas, 
Mary, Hannah and Rebecca. Thomas was bora in 1707, and was 
apprenticed to his uncle, Dr. Evans Jones, who moved to Xew 
York in 17i'7. Young - Thomas became a distinguished physi- 
cian in the colony; was associated with Benjamin Franklin in es- 
tablishing the Philadelphia Library; he presided at the great 
"Tea Meeting" in the State House yard, in which the "Phila- 
delphia Resolutions" were adopted, the language of which was 
copied into the famous "Boston Resolutions" of a later date, 
lie married Hannah Lambert in 1738, and had two sons, John 
and Lambert. Both he and his two sons signed the "XonTmpor- 
tation Article" which bound the people of the Colony not to buy 
English-made goods till the wrongs of the people were righted. 
He died in 177'.'. Mary, the eldest, daughter of Martha Cad- 
waladcr, was married in 1731 to Judge Samuel Dickinson, and 
became the mother of John Dickinson, the ablest lawyer of his 
day in the Colony, and an officer of the militia at the outbreak of 
the Revolution, and at which time he was a member of the 
Colonial Assembly. Hannah, the next daughter, married Samuel 
Morris, and the third daughter, Rebecca, married William Morris. 
These brothers were relatives of Robert Morris, the financial 
officer of the Confederated Colonies during the Revolution. 

We append the following biographical sketch of Gen. John 
Cadwaladcr, the eldest son of Dr. Thomas Cadwalader, before 
mentioned : 

John Cadwalader, soldier, was born in Philadelphia, Jan. 10, 
1742. Although thirty-three years of age at the time of the out- 
break of the Revolution, ami a very promising and able officer 
thereafter, nothing seems to have been recorded regarding his early 
life. It is known that, at the time of the battle of Lexington, he 
was in command of a volunteer company in Philadelphia, which 
was popularly known as the "Silk Stocking Company." This 
would appear to have been an organization from among the elite 

247 



of the young men of the Quaker City, but there can be no doubt 
that the company was well drilled and disciplined, as nearly all 
of its members afterwards received commissions in the army. 
Cadwalader was an active member of the committee of safety 
until he was appointed colonel of one of the city battalions. Later, 
he was commissioned a brigadier-g< neral under the State govern- 
ment, and during the winter campaign of 1770-77 he commanded 
the Pennsylvania troops. General Washington's determination to 
cross the Delaware above the "Falls" with his main division on 
the evening of Christinas, 1770, for the purpose of attacking 
Trenton, included the simultaneous crossing of the river at lower 
points by two smaller divisions of the army. One of these divis- 
ions, under General Ewing, was to land at the ferry, below 
Trenton, in order to prevent any movement of the British from 
Trenton towards their posts at Bordentown and Burlington. 
General Cadwalader was to make, if possible, an attack upon 
Burlington, his orders from General Washington being: "If 
you can do nothing real, at least create as great a diversion as 
possible." The crossing of the Delaware on and through the ice 
a few miles above Trenton has been celebrated in picture and 
story. Washington accomplished the feat with great difficulty, 
but below Trenton the floating iee rendered it impossible for the 
other divisions to cross, so that a part of the British force in 
Trenton succeeded in retreating in the direction of Bordentown, 
and it was not until the 27th that General Cadwalader was able to 
move his division across from Bristol to the Jersey side. The 
strength of the British position at Trenton being much greater 
than General Washington had supposed, and the British force 
larger than his own, the commander-in-chief abandoned his posi- 
tion to make the attack upon Princeton, which occurred Jan. 3, 
1777. This was the first engagement in which General Cad- 
walader took part. General Washington, writing shortly after- 
wards to the PresideTit of Congress, described him as "a man of 
ability, a good disciplinarian, firm in his principles, and of in- 
trepid bravery." In 1777, the British army landed at Elkton, 
Md., and it became necessary to organize and equip the militia 
on the eastern shore. Washington accordingly sent General Cad- 
walader there. The latter shortly afterwards joined the army 
under Washington, taking part in the battle of Brandywine. He 



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WYNNEWOOD PLACE. TEXAS 



also served as a volunteer at the battle of Gennantown, and 
during the winter was engaged in partisan service on the flanks 
of the enemy. He was again in Maryland, engaged in recruiting 
on the eastern shore. Early in the spring of 177S he wrote to 
General Washington, stating his purpose to rejoin the army, and 
received from Washington in reply the following: "We want 
your aid exceedingly, and the public, perhaps at no time since 
the beginning of the war, would be more benefited by your advice 
and assistance than at the present moment, and throughout the 
whole of this campaign, which must be important and critical." 
Later, in regard to a special detachment of about. 400 Continental 
troops, with some militia, who were to harass the rear of the 
enemy, then moving through Xew Jersey toward New York, 
Chief Justice Marshall said: "If General Cadwalader could be 
prevailed upon to command them, he would be named by Wash- 
ington for that service, as an officer in whom full confidence might 
be placed." Cadwalader engaged in it with alacrity. By all of 
this it would appear that General Cadwalader held rather a 
peculiar relation toward Washington, and toward the existing 
struggle; the fact being that he was a man of enormous fortune, 
whom it was very desirable to engage in the service of the colonies, 
and who appeal's to have had move of his own way when in the 
service than any of the other officers. The conclusion of the 
movement through Xew Jersey was the battle of Monmouth, 
which was fought June 28, 1TTS, and in which General Cad- 
walader was engaged. 

It was at this time that the celebrated cabal was formed 
against General Washington, known as "Conway's Cabal," from 
Thomas, called the Count de Conway, an Irishman, who has the 
evil repute of having been the leader of the conspiracy which 
aimed to overthrow Washington and put General Gates in his 
place. Cadwalader's feelings were strongly enlisted in behalf of 
Washington, whose confidence and friendly regard he had uni- 
formly enjoyed, and whose opposition to this cabal brought him 
into a duel with General Conway. Authorities differ as to the 
process by which this was reached. One story is that Cadwalader 
challenged Conway on account of the latter's attacks upon the 
commander-in-chief. Another, which seems more probable, is 
that General Cadwalader's animadversions upon General Con- 

251 



way's behavior at the battle of Germantown caused the latter r<> 
send a challenge. Whichever of these two statements may be the 
correct one, the challenge passed and was accepted, and a duel 
was fought near Philadelphia, July 2~2, 1778, in which Conway 
was shot in the month and fell, severely wounded, and as it was 
thought at the time, mortally, though he ultimately recovered and 
left the country. His antagonist was unhurt. General Cad- 
walader was never in the United States military service. When 
not in the field with his command in the Pennsylvania line, he 
acted in battle either as a volunteer or under specified orders for 
particular service. This arrangement was of his own making, as 
he was twice appointed by Congress a brigadier-general, and de- 
clined the appointment. Subsequently General Cadwalader was 
a member of the Legislative Assembly of Maryland. His daugh- 
ter, Frances, married David Montague, afterward Lord Erskine, 
and from her are descended the present Dukes of Portland and 
the wife of Lord Archibald Campbell. After General Cadwala- 
der's death, Thomas Paine, the great Revolutionary patriot, who 
had been considered his enemy through life, wrote an epitaph, in 
the form of a monumental inscription, for a Baltimore news- 
paper, which ran as follows : 

"iS MEMORY OF OKXKIiAL .71)11 X CADWALADER, 

Who died February 10th, 1786, 

At Shrewsbury, his seat in Kent county, 

In the forty-fourth year of his age. 

This amiable, worthy gentleman 

Had served his country 

With reputation 

In the character of a soldier and a statesman: 

He took an active part, and had a principal 

Share in the late Revolution; 

And although he was zealous in the cause 

Of American freedom, 

His conduct was not marked with the 

Least degree of malevolence or party spirit. 

Those who honestly differed from him in opinion, 

He always treated with singular tenderness. 

In sociability and cheerfulness of temper, 

Honesty, and goodness of heart, 

Independence of spirit, and warmth of friendship, 

He had no superior, 

And few, very few, equals. 

Never did any man die more lamented 

By his friends and neighbors; 

To his family and near relations 

His death was a stroke still more severe." 



252 






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MRS. SUSAN WYNNE AMOLD. FLORIDA 



Lambert Cadwalader, the younger brother of Gen. John Cad- 
walader, before mentioned, served in the Revolutionary army, 
being lieutenant-colonel of the Third Pennsylvania Battalion, 
Jan. 4, 1776. He was taken prisoner at Fort Washington when 
that stronghold was besieged and captured by General Howe on 
Xov. 16, 1776. However, while a prisoner, Congress promoted 
him, December, 1776, to be colonel of the Fourth Pennsylvania, 
to rank from Oct. 25, 1770. lie was finally released on parole 
and was not exchanged, resigning his military position dan. 22, 
17 7!'. We find that he was closely associated with General Wash- 
ington, it appearing in our researches that on Jan. 21, 1790, he 
dined with the President, and also again on April Sth, same year, 
and that "he exercised with General Washington on horseback on 
more than one occasion." He died Sept. 12, 1823. 

Mr. Francis Howard Williams, president of the "Society of 
the Welcome,'' composed of descendants of the passengers who 
came to Penn's colony on that vessel in October, 1CS2, is himself 
a descendant of Or. Thomas Wynne, and gives his genealogy as 
follows : 

Sir John Wynne — Sidney Gerard. 
Peter Wynne — 
Or. Thomas Wynne — Mary Bultall. 

Mary Wynne — Dr. Edward Jones. 
Elizabeth Jones — Rees Thomas, Jr. 
Anna Thomas — Samuel Williams. 
Thomas Williams — Isabella Howard. 
Howard Williams — Ann Heacoek. 
Joseph J. Williams — Martha Paul Shoemaker. 
Francis Howard Williams — Martha P. Houston. 



THE HUMPHREYS. 

HAXXAII WYNNE was married Aug. 25, 1695, to Mr. 
Daniel Humphreys, who was also a Welsh immigrant to 
Pennsylvania. The Humphreys came from Llwvngwrill, and 
their genealogy dates back to 1400. Daniel was the son of 
Samuel Humphrey and Elizabeth Pecs, or Rhys, both being 
among the oldest and most respectable families in Wales. Mr. 

255 



Humphreys became one of the largest landowners in Pennsyl- 
vania, the old maps showing his real estate in numerous parts of 
the Colony. Daniel and Hannah resided near Merion, in Mont- 
gomery county, and had numerous children, must of whom lived to 
maturity. Their offspring comprised: 

Samuel, horn 6-3-1696; Thomas, b. 4-20-1697; Jonathan, b. 
7-9-1698; Hannah, b. 11-7-1699; Benjamin, b. 11-7-1701; Eliza- 
beth, b. 8-16-1703; Mary, b. 12-10-1704; Solomon, b. 10-16-1706; 
Joshua, b. 1-10-1708; Edward, b. 12-28-1709; Martha, b. 9-9- 
1711 ; Charles, b. 7-19-1714; Rehecca, b. 10-2-1716. 

Among the later descendants of this worthy couple may be 
mentioned Joshua Humphrey, often called the "Father of the 
American Navy," and General Humphrey of Revolutionary fame. 
Also Jacob Humphrey, captain Gth Penn. Feb. 15, 1777, trans- 
ferred to 1st Pcnn. 1783, and served to June, 17S3. We find also 
John Humphrey, ensign of Lee's Light Dragoons, Aug. 2, 1770; 
transferred to Cth Penn. Aug. 25. 1770; transferred to 2nd Pcnn. 
Jan. 17, 1781; 2nd Lieut. 4th Continental Artillery Ap. 2, 17S2. 
Served to June 17, 1783. 

Charles Humphrey, son of Daniel and Hannah, was a member 
of the Provincial Assembly 1763-1774; and was one of seven 
deputies to attend the first Inter-Colonial Congress, which adopted 
"First Bill of Rights." He was also a number of First Colonial 
Congress in 1775. He was born in the famous Mansion House 
on Cobhs' creek, near Haverford Meeting House. 

One of the Humphreys, in conjunction with his cousin, Dick- 
inson, were members of the committee of the Pennsylvania 
House of Delegates at the time of the question of the adop- 
tion of the Constitution of the United States, and both 
voted against it because of the implied license of slavery in the 
instrument. As Pennsylvania's assent was an absolute necessity 
to the adoption of the Constitution, and as there were only five 
members of the committee having the matter in reference, it will 
be seen upon what slender threads momentous issues hang. 

XOTES. 

Daniel Humphrey came to America from Merionethshire, 
Wales, about the same time as William Penn arrived. He was 
accompanied by his mother, Elizabeth Humphrey, and brother, 
Benjamin, and sisters, Anna and Gabitha. 

256 



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MRS. ELIZABETH WYNNE FRENCH AND HUSBAND 



The following genealogy is taken from Browning's "Americans 
of Royal Descent": 

Daniel Humphrey married Martha Wynne, and had 1, Charles 
Humphrey of "Mansion House," member of Provincial Assem- 
bly 1761-74, and Continental Congress 1774-7C, and voted against 
the Declaration of Independence; 2, Dr. Edward Humphrey, who 
married Eliz. Hays; 3, Samuel Humphreys; 4, Joshua Hum- 
phrey, who married Sarah William; 5, Joshua Humphreys, naval 
constructor and master shipbuilder to the government. He mar- 
ried Mary Davis, and had 1, Clement Humphrey; 2, Sarah Hum- 
phrey, married Henry Hollingsworth and had Hannah, who mar- 
ried Dr. Thomas Stewardson, Mary who married Dr. James Car- 
son, Rebecca who married Gen. A. E. Humphrey; 3, Chas. Hum- 
phrey, who married Lowry Price ; 4, Elizabeth ; 5, Ann ; 6, 
Joshua; 7, Ann; S, Rebecca; 9, Martha; 10, Margaret; 11, Sam- 
uel Humphrey of Philadelphia, chief naval constructor to govern- 
ment 182G-46, who married Letitia Atkinson, and had: 1, Clem- 
ent; 2, Gen. A. E. Humphrey, U. S. A., and married Rebecca 
Hollings and had Capt Henry Humphrey, U. S. A. ; Lieut. 
Charles Humphrey 1866, and Rebecca Letitia; 3, Lieut. Joshua 
Humphrey, U. S. N. and C. S. V. ; 4, Jane Humphrey, who mar- 
ried Capt. McCabe, U. S. A.; 5, Catherine; 6, Mary, who mar- 
ried George Yonge of Augusta, Ga., and had Letitia, who married 
J. C. AVrenchall, Pittsburg, Samuel Yonge, Kansas City, and 
William Wadlcy Yonge of Chattanooga ; 7, William Penn Hum- 
phrey, U. S. N\, San Erancisco. 

The following genealogy shows the Vans, residents of Phila- 
delphia : 

Dr. Thomas Wynne. 

1. Hannah Wynne, afterwards Humphreys. 

2. Martha Humphreys, afterwards Paschall. 

3. Hannah Paschall, afterwards Hollingsworth. 

4. Mary Hollingsworth, afterwards Morris. 

5. Levi Morris. 

6. Sarah H. Morris, afterwards married to Mr. George Vaux. 

7. Mary M. Vaux, George Vaux, Jr., William S. Vaux, Jr. 

All unmarried. 



259 



THE DICKINSONS. 

REBECCA W'YXNK was born in 1G62. She married first 
- Mr. Solomon Thomas, an esteemed Welsh Friend, in March, 
16S5, at Tliinlliavcn Meeting, Talbot comity, Md. He lived for 
only a few years thereafter, and died without issue. Relwcca 
married on the 2:Jd of July, IGU2, Mr. John Dickinson, of Talbot 
county, Md., the ceremony taking place at Ids house. He was the 
son of Walter Dickinson, of Crosia-dore, and an uncle of Sam- 
uel Dickinson, who married Mary Cadwalader, the daughter of 
John Cadwalader and Martha Jones (the latter a granddaughter 
of Dr. Thomas Wynne. But little more is known of the genealogy 
of this branch, the Maryland records being not well kept. 

It is reported that Dr. Thomas Wynne had a daughter by his 
second wife, Margery Maud, and that this child is the ancestor 
of the Fisher ami Gilpin families. However, no mention of her 
is made in the doctor's will, and we are inclined to the hclief that 
she was probably a step-daughter. 



THE CHEWS. 



SIDNEY WYNNK married William Chew on October 20, 
1C> ( .Il!, at the house of William Richardson, in Anna Arundel 
county, Maryland. Mr. Chew was the son of Samuel and Ann 
Chew of that county. Col. Samuel Chew was in KiTG chancellor 
and secretary of the proprietor, Lord Baltimore. The author has 
not been able to trace this family more fully, largely for the same 
reasons as stated about the Dickinsons. 



THE WYXNFS. 

'\ / ~pHOMAS WYNNE, of Blockley, the eldesl son of Jonathan, 

-*- the son of Dr. Thomas Wynne, inherited Wynnestaye from 

his father, lie married Mary Warner, daughter of Isaac Warner 

of Blockley, the wedding occurring at the Friends' Meeting at 

Philadelphia. Oct. 28, 17i-J. lie died in 1751; afterwards his 



260 



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ISAAC WYNNE AND FAMILY. CRAWFORD CO.. OHIO 



widow married James done.-, no children resulting from the second 
marriage. Mr. Wynne's estate was appraised by Robert Roberts 
and David George at £195. The children of Mr. and Mrs. Wynne 
were: ~ , ',<- 

1. Ann, born Dec. 2, 1724; she married Phineas Roberts, a 
descendant of a Welsh family, in 1743, and they had, among other 
children, Hannah Roberts, born 1717, who married Lieut. Abra- 
ham Streeper in 1768, and had Mary Streeper, born Oct. 28, 
1770, who married Titus Vcrkcs, and had Mary Paul Yerkes, 
born June 12, lbl4, who married Joel Cook 2nd and had Gus- 
tavus Benson Cook, bom July 18, 183S, and had Joel Cook 3d, 
born March 20, 1S42, married Mary E. Edmunds, and had Rich- 
ard Yerkes Cook, born Feb. 25, 1S45; William Cook, born July 
IS, 1S4S, married Mary Earle. Richard Yerkes Cook married 
Lavina Borden and had one son, Gustavus Wynne Cook, born 
Dec. 12, 18GS, who married Xancy Mumford Bright of Williams- 
burg, Ya., and had Xancy Wynne Cook and Lavina Emly Cook. 

2. Lydia, born Jan. 12, 1720, married Jonathan Edwards 
in 174 G. 

3. Jonathan. 

4. Sarah, born Dec. 27, 172S. 

5. Thomas, born Sept. 13, 1730, died in infancy. 
(J. Thomas, born Xov. 21, 1733, of whom presently. 
7. Isaac, bom July 2, 1737. 

S. Deborah, bora Oct. 18, 1741. 

9. Mary, born July 24, 1714. 

Thomas, the son of Thomas and Mary Wynne, bom Xov. 21, 
1733, married Margaret Colton, on Jan. 27, 1757, and two chil- 
dren were born to them : Thomas and Phebe. 

1. Phebe, married John Adams, and they resided at Wynnc- 
staye, where Mr. Adams conducted a snuff mill for several years. 
They had an only son, John Adams, who married Rachel Bohr- 
man and continued to reside in Blockley. They also had two 
daughter-: .Phebe, who married James Steel, and Margaret, 
who married John Davis. 

2. Thomas was born in 1702 ; he married Elizabeth Bees, 
and they inherited Wynnestaye from Mr. Wynne's father. Dur- 
ing the Revolution Mr. Wynne joined the American army and was 
made a lieutenant in what was denominated the Flying Camp, 

263 



being probably li^lir nnnctl troops designed for scouting and 
skirmishing. While in this service, under the command of his 
cousin, Col. Lamberl C'adwalader, lie was captured by the British 
at Fort Washington and kept a prisoner for a long time in New 
York. He was afterwards paroled, but was never exchanged. 
During bis absence, Wynnestaye was besieged by a British ma- 
rauding parly from Philadelphia, but .Mrs. Wynne, aided by her 
domestic and farm hand-, made a successful resistance until the 
round of the tiring brought relief from the American forces. .\fr. 
Wynne died at Wynnestaye at the age of eighty-three years. This 
couple had nine children, to-wit : 

Margaret, who married John Dungan. 

Thomas, who married Hannah Sharpe. 

Phebo, who married Owen Jones. 

Ruth, who married Leonard Knight. 

Elizabeth, who married William Rose. 

Ann, who married William Davey. 

Samuel, of whom presently. 

Susanna, born March 2S, 1 s04 ; married Jacob Duffield. She 
died July 23, 1844. 

Polly, who died aged IS years and 2."> days. 

We were unable to trace the families of any of these children, 
except Samuel, who was born in 1795. lie married Phehe 
Sharpe, who was horn Aug. 31, 1795, and died June 13, 1871. 
Their children were : 

Elizabeth, horn .March 23, 1817, died Jan. 8, ]sr>2. She mar- 
ried William McDonald; had issui — two daughters and one son. 

Sarah, horn Jan. IS, 1819, died Aug. 8, 1819. 

.Mary, horn Dec. 27, 1820, died Sept. S, 1896. She married 
Daniel Ilagv ; had issue — four daughters and six sons. 

Joseph Sharpe, of whom presently. 

Anna B., horn Dec. 21, 1S23 ; died .March 21, lSOfi; unmar- 
ried. 

Keziah C, horn Feb. 8, 1S26; died July 20, 1905; she married 
Evan Jones; had issiu — two daughters and four sons. 

Samuel, born Jan. :!, 1828; died March 24, 18 ( .t.">; he married 
Annie Litzenberg; bad issue — three daughters and five sons. 

Phebe, horn Sept. 20, 1S29; died Jan. 15, 1901; unmarried. 



264 



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THOMAS AND NANCY WYNNE. TOLEDO. OHIO 



William G., bom Nov. 3, 1831; died Sept. 3, 1904; he married 
Maria Cooper; had issue — three daughters and one son. 

Susan D., born Feb. 27, 1S33, died May 30, 1905; she married 
first, Clias. B. Thomas; second, George Smith; had issue — two 
sons by Thomas and two sons by Smith. 

Margaret D-, born Feb. 13, 1837; married Charles H. Car- 
penter ; no issue. 

Joseph Sharpe Wynne, the son of Samuel and Phebe (Sharpe) 
Wynne, was born May 20, 1822, and died July 16, 1S97. He 
married Elizabeth X. Matlock, and they had issue as follows: 

Thomas, of whom presently. 

William W., born March 7, 1851; married first, Mary Steel, 
and had issue — two daughters and one son; married second, Eliza- 
beth Steel (sister of first wife), and had issue — two daughters 
and two sons. 

Lizzie X., born Jan. 7, 1S53; died Doc. 20, 18S2; she married 
Lineaus A. Prince, and had issue — two daughters and two sons. 

Emily X., born May 19, 1S55; married Robert K. Pearce, and 
had issue — three daughters and one son. 

Phebe M., born Jan. 25, 1857; died Sept. 1, 185S. 

Charles C, born Feb. 11, 1S59 ; married first, Nellie Campbell, 
had issue — one daughter and one son ; second wife, Eebecca Mac- 
Donald, no issue. 

Mary II., born Oct. 4, 1SG1 ; died Dec. 4, 1864. 

Mary, bora May, 1SG5: died 1871. 

Thomas Wynne, the eldest son of Joseph and Elizabeth (Mat- 
lock) Wynne, was born Sept. 1, 1S49; he married first, Sarah L. 
Miller, and had issue — one son. He married second, Elizabeth 
(Bessie) Maclean, and had issue — one son and one daughter. 
Mr. Wynne has been for many years librarian of the George In- 
stitute Library, 5100 Lancaster avenue, Philadelphia, and is a 
skilled genealogist. The author acknowledges great obligations 
to him for favors conferred. His children, above mentioned, are 
as follows : 

Clarence P. Wynne, born Oct. 13, 1S76 ; president of the real 
estate company of Wynne, Prince & Co., 719 Walnut street, 
Philadelphia. The vice-president, Joseph W. Prince, is a cousin. 

Helen, bom Jan. 29, 1893. 

Thomas Elliott, born March 29, 1S96. 

267 



John Wynne, the second son of Jonathan and Sarah (Greaves) 
Wynne, inherited from his father 250 acres in the Chester Valley 
(now Nantmel township, Chester county). It seems, however, 
thai he never resided there, but, mi the other hand, settled in Ger- 
mantown, Pa., near Philadelphia, lie married Anne, daughter 
of Henry and Sarah ( Boucher) Pastorius; her grandparents were 
Daniel and Frances Pastorius. Mr. Wynne died in 17ST. 
His children were: Pastorious, Isaac, Sarah, Mary and Ann. 
The youngest daughter married a Mr. Hutton. One of the streets 
in (lerniantown was named Wynne street in honor of the elder 
John Wynne; it was later renamed Duncannon street. Sarah 
married a ^Ir. Hall, and had two sons, Joseph and John Hall. 
Pastorious Wynne, the eldest son of John, died in ITs'.t. We have 
been unable to trace the descent of this branch any further. 

The brother of Dr. Thomas Wynne evidently had a son named 
James R. Wynne. In support of this theory we eite a provision 
in the will of Thomas Wynne, grandson of Dr. Wynne, bequeath- 
ing to his cousin, James Wynne, a horse. As this will was pro- 
bated Xov. 23, 1751, it does not appear that the gift was made to 
his brother Jonathan's son, James, who was not horn till 1736, 
and would have been a nephew instead of cousin. We have also 
been apprised that a descendant of Dr. Wynne's brother was 
killed by Indians in Virginia. 

George Cadwalader, of Philadelphia, descendant of Dr. Thomas 
Wynne, still owns rlie famous dueling pistols which were used at 
the hostile meeting between his ancestor, Gen. John Cadwalader, 
and Gen. Counl Conway during the Revolution. 

At Great Valley Baptist Church, Chester county, Pa., is re- 
corded on Dec. 14, 1S15, the marriage of William Wynne to 
Jane Leitch. 



WELCOME SOCIETY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

ON TDK 5th day of October, 1906, a number of the descend- 
ants of the passengers who immigrated to America with 
William Penn on board the ship Welcome formed the above named 

society for the purpose of collecting and preserving historic data 
relative to the settlement of Pennsylvania and the founding of 

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MR. AND MRS. E. S WYNNE. TOLEDO, OHIO 



Philadelphia, and for social purposes. The membership is limited 
to one hundred. Below are given the names of the members who 
derive their eligibility to membership through descent from Dr. 
Thomas Wynne, although there are some hundreds now living in 
Philadelphia who are of Wynne descent: 

Richard M. Cadwalader. Henry D. Rogers. 

Dr. Chas. E. Cadwalader. Rodney Wister. 

Richard Y. Cook. Alexander W. Wister. 

Sydney George Fisher. Jones Wister. 

Ellicott Fisher. Miss Hannah Ann Zell. 

Thomas H. Shoemaker. Mrs. Mary Williams de Marie 

Francis Howard Williams. Mrs. Hannah P. Richardson. 

Churchill Williams. Mrs. Mary Williams Shoe- 

Aubrey Howard Williams. maker. 

The society's officers are: Francis Howard Williams, presi- 
dent; Rodman Wister, vice-president ; Aubrey Howard Williams, 
secretary; Ellicott Fisher, treasurer; George Cuthbert Gillespie, 
registrar. Council — Richard McCall Cadwalader, John B. Cala- 
han, Jr., Charles Gobrecbt Darrach, Sidney George Fisher, Har- 
rold F. Gillingham, John Story Jenks, Fisher Corlies Morgan, 
Thomas II. Shoemaker, Alexander W. Wister. 



THE SECOND JONATHAN WYNN. 

JONATHAN, son of Jonathan Wynn of Blockley township, re- 
ceived for his portion, two hundred and fifty acres of land in 
what is now Nantmel township, Chester county, Pa. His 
brother John received a like amount of land in the same place, 
and his three younger sisters inherited four hundred acres in the 
same locality. They seem to have retained it jointly, no account, 
of a division of it being found. It came to be known as the 
"Wynn Tract," and was most desirably situated, comprising about 
the best body of land in the township. It does not appear that 
any of the heirs lived thereon, or did anything to improve it. 
After they had paid faxes for several years without receiving any 
income of importance, it seems that the county authorities decided 
to raise the rates on all lands in the county uniformly "a pepper 

271 



an acre," this being flic popular way of designating it. In reality 
the increase was to the extent of the value of one pound of pepper 
to the acre. The value of pepper in those times is not given, but 
it must have been considerable, inasmuch as all imported goods 
which were brought to the colonies were high-priced, and were 
in fact luxuries. Rather than pay the amount demanded the 
Wynnes gave back the land to the public. It is now a highly 
cultivated tract and of the average value of $150 per acre. 

The young Jonathan, anyhow, did afterwards come to Chester 
county with his wife, Ann, to whom he was married on the lGth 
of June, 1730, and a large family blessed this union. The 
author could not learn just what part of the county he resided in, 
nor where he and his wife were buried. Jonathan died April 17, 
1788, and his wife died March !), 1786. Following are the births 
of their children: 

Samuel Wynn, born Aug. 22, 1 T -' J 1 ; Mary, born Nov. 19, 1733 ; 
James, born March 28, 173G; Esther, born Jan. 2S, 1738; Isaac, 
horn Aug. 24, 1741; Hannah, horn Feb. 25, 1741; Warner, born 
Jan. 28, 1747; Jonathan, born Oct. 28, 174!); Thomas, born Oct. 
27, 1750; Jane, bom Jan. 10. 17.">4; Elizabeth, born Oct. 23, 
1755. Concerning the after life of these children wc have been 
able to gather the following data: Isaac, Thomas, Warner and 
Jane emigrated to Fayette county. Fa., and more of them will 
appear hereafter. 

THE MILLARDS. 

Hannah married Joseph Millard, who was horn Xov. 11, 1743. 
The Millards came from Scotland, and were originally Scotch- 
Irish in race. They are among the best people of Chester county, 
whore the family first located. They became identified with the 
Wynnes through the marriage of Joseph Millard with Hannah 
Wynne, the daughter of the second Jonathan Wynne who lived 
in America. She was first married to a Mr. Hughes, who died, 
and she afterwards married Mr. Millard. She died Xov. 11, 
1820, age eighty-three years. By the last marriage were born 
Jonathan Millard, on Feb. 1!), 17S3, and Thomas, the date of 
whose birth is nut given. Jonathan, who was named for his ma- 
ternal grandfather, married Sarah Harvuat, who was born July 
7, 1770. They had a son, Thomas Millard, who still lives on the 

272 







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JOHN WYNNE AND FAMILY. PARIS. ILL. 



old farm near Good Will Church, arid who was born Aug. 14, 
1S1G. This latter Thomas had three sons, Jonathan, James and 
Howard; of these children Jonathan lives on the home farm, 
James died in 1860, and Howard lives in Loag's Corner, same 
township. The father, Thomas Millard, then in his ninetieth 
year, the author found still in good health, although partially 
paralyzed in his right hand. He was for many years a surveyor 
of the county, and is thoroughly posted in the affairs of the 
country. He informed the author that the Millards are related 
to the family of John ap John, a distinguished Welsh Quaker 
minister, who was associated with Dr. Thomas Wynne in the 
original purchase of the Welsh Tract from William Penn. 

Rev. Thomas Millard, the second son of Hannah Wynn Mil- 
lard, had, among other issue, a daughter Phehe, who married a 
Mr. Baer, and their daughter, Emma, married Isaac Wynn of 
Crawford county, Ohio. Another daughter of Phebe Baer was 
Hannah, born 1800, who first married Israel Irvin and afterwards 
Isaac Hillborn. 



THE ROBERTS. 

Elizabeth Wynn, the youngest daughter of Jonathan Wynn, 
married David Roberts, who was born March 23, 1755. They 
had two daughters, Mary, born Dec. 12, 1778, and Ann, horn 
Jan. 13, 1781. Further details regarding her descendants we 
have been unable to obtain. 

An account of Jane Wynn, who married William Xixon, will 
be found under the head of "Fayette County Wynns." 

Samuel, the eldest son of Jonathan Wynne, was born Aug. 22, 
1731, hail three sons — James, John and David, and five daugh- 
ters — Katie, Rebecca, Harriet, Annie and Mary. Of these chil- 
dren: David — born in 1772 and died in 1S4S — had two sons, 
James and Thomas. They lived in Easl Xantmel township, 
Chester county. Pa. Thomas had two sons — Jonathan ami 
Thomas; Jonathan's daughter was Charles Millard's mother. 
James, another son of David Wynne, was born March 28, 1S3G; 
he had seven sons and one daughter- — Jonathan, Isaac, David, 
James, Thomas, Samuel and Emily. James, one of these suns, 



275 



married Elizabeth Buehwalter, and had issue — Leighton; Mary 
Ann, who married John Rich Hoffman; Harry B., who married 
Maria Ralston; Elizabeth, who married Edward E. Wood, of 
U. S. A., a graduate of West Point, and now professor of modern 
languages in that institution with the rank of colonel; James, who 
married Debbie Rooke, and lias three children living — Emma, 
Grace and Frank; Clara I!., who married Dr. William Morris 
Rooke, has one child living— Edgar Leighton. .Mrs. Colonel 
Wood is the only child of James Wynne now living. 

Jonathan Wynn, horn Oct. IS, 17o7, and who lived to ho sev- 
enty-two years old. lie was probably the .son of James, .son of 
the second Jonathan Wynne. His wife was Margaret, horn Feb. 
4, 1772, and died 1S0S. They had issue: Rebecca, horn Xov. 0, 
1701 ; Elizabeth, horn Aug. 23, 1793; Thomas, April 14, 1798; 
Isaac, horn July 27, 1800; Jonathan, horn April 1, 1S04; Mar- 
garet, horn July 22, 1S07 ; Sarah Ann, horn March 22, 1811; 
Hannah, horn Jan. 1, 1813; James Ross, horn April 27, 1S15 (he 
died Oct. 10-23, 1864) ; Mary Ann, horn Xov. 30, 1816; Xaney, 
born Feb. 5, 1818. The father afterwards married another wife, 
named Sarah . (The above is taken from letter of Wallace- 
ton (Pa.) Fire Brick Company, with W. ][. Wynn, Tr. ; S. G. 
Wynn, Supt. ; D. R. Wynn, Sec.) The letter also says: Sarah 
Wynn, wife of Jonathan Wynn, died July 11, 1S29. "Our grand- 
father had four wives, only two on record. All his children except 
Jonathan went West; Jonathan went to Blairsville, Indiana 

county, Pa. James Ross Wynn married Mary Ann , who 

died Dec. 31, 1SS7. They moved to Bolivar, Pa., where their 
children wore horn, as follows: Jonathan, b. Oct. 23, 1 S 7 ; 
George, July 27, 1S39; Elizabeth, May 16, 1S41; William 11., 
Mar. lit, 1S43; Alexander. Feb. 5, 1845; Louisa. Aug. 13, 1847; 
John Peter. Jan. 1. 1850; James R., July 12, 1852; Emily M.. 
Aug. 28, 1855; Robert, Sept. 4. 1S57; Samuel Gilmore, Feb. 27, 
1860; Sarah. Mar. 12, 1S62." John Peter Wynn, one of these 
children, lived at 121 W. Main street, Lock Haven, Pa. He says: 
"I have a nephew, Charles A. Wynn, at the Jefferson Medical 
College." This in 1S96. 

Isaac, another son of David Wynne, had a son, Isaac Xewton 
Wynne, at present an attorney with offices at Westchester and 



■ 






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SARAH WYNNE DEEM. KNIGHTSTOWN. INDIANA 



Phenixvillc, Chester county, Pa. lie married Ella Bishop, and 
they have two daughters and one son. 

Samuel, another sou of .Tames Wynne, had a son, Thomas; also, 
a son, Samuel, Jr., who had Alvin, Paul S., Samuel O., Harry X. 
and Earl It. 

David, still another son of David Wynne, Sr., had a daughter, 
Hannah A., who married Silas Peimypacker <>f Marsh Farm. 

About Mary and Esther, the remaining children of the elder 
Jonathan Wynne of Marsh Farm, we are unable to give any in- 
formation. 



FAYETTE COUXTY (PA.) BRANCH. 

'"TT^HREE brothers, Isaac, Warner and Thomas, sons of 
-L Jonathan Wynn, of Chester county, Pa., some time after 
the Revolution, moved west into the Alleghany mountains and 
settled on George's creek, a tributary of the Youghiogheuy river, 
in what was at that time Westmoreland county, but is now Fayette 
county, Pa. They purchased lands contiguous to each other — 
tracts of considerable size — and altogether they owned all the 
district whereon the thriving industrial towns of Oliphant's Fur- 
nace and Fairchance are now located. 

ISAAC WVXX IJUAXCII. 

The elder of these brothers, Isaac, seems to have been the 
most prominent of the three, and left the most durable im- 
press upon the history of the county. He was born in Chester 
county, Pa., Aug. 24, 1741, and died in Fayette county. Pa., on 
Oct. '.', 1807. His wife was named Mary; she died June 14, 
1811. Mr. Wynn's will was probated in 1808. He left his 
landed estate principally to his four sons, Isaac, Thomas, Warner 
and Jonathan. Of the latter three very little record is to be 
found outside the division of the estate; although tradition states 
that. Thomas once killed a man at Uniontown in such apparent 
self-defense that he was not even arrested. Besides his sons, 
Isaac had three daughters: Hannah, who married Peter Corson; 
they moved to McKeesport, Pa., where the husband amassed a 

279 



large fortune in the iron trade Their son, Capt. Benjamin Cor- 
son, lives in Pittsburg, and has added largely to the family wealth. 
Jle lias a beautiful summer home at Ohio Pyle, Pa., overlooking 
the falls of the Youghioghcny, where the family come every year 
for an outing. 

Frances Wynn, the second daughter of Isaac, married Moses 
Nixon, one of the pioneers of this section. He built the old 
'•Nixon Mill-" before 1800— now called the Abel .Mills. lie also 
owned a distillery, tin- ruins of which still remain. The moun- 
taineers of the Alleghany district rebelled against the government 
on account of a burdensome excise tax on spirits; alleging that on 
account of the long distance to market, and the rough country to 
he traveled over, they could not dispose of their grain crops prof- 
itably unless allowed to deliver them in the most concentrated 
form. .Mr. Nixon was a representative of this class, and while 
there is no account of his having taken any part in the insurrection, 
yet it is known that he signed a protest against the government's 
action in the matter. He also kept the popular tavern of the com- 
munity, "The Fox and Dogs," where the landed gentry gathered 
in much the same fashion as is followed in the country clubs of 
the present day. lie was also a justice in the county court. The 
family were prominent in the settlement, ami have left numerous 
descendants, many of whom still live in the county. 

Isaac Wynn, the remaining son of Isaac, St., was married to 
Dorcas Nixon, probably a sister of his brother-in-law, Moses 
Nixon. But little authentic record is to he found concerning him. 
It is known that his wife died May 1, 1S72, aged ninety-two years, 
which would make the year of her birth 17S0. < She was Walter 
and Rose Laughead's great-grandmother.) This couple were 
blessed with issue, as follows: 

Mary, who married William Sutton; had Eliza, Joseph, Estep 
and Mary. 

Isaac, of whom presently. 

Jane, who married William Vance and moved to Hillsboro, O. 
They had eight children, including, among others, Eliza, Isaac, 
Beeson and Cynderella. 

Clarinda, who married Hugh AVhite and moved to Dungall, 
Pa. They had one child. Isaac. 

Isaac Wynn, the third of the name, was born April 9, 1S13, 
and his father's estate being divided, he inherited the homestead. 

280 




GRAVE OF MRS. UNA WYNNE, EDGAR CO.. ILL. 



On Oct. 3, 1S34, he married Hannah Iliatt, who was born June 

20, 1S1T. Mr. Wynn was a Baptist minister, and quite promi- 
nent in the church, lie owned a large tract of land, nearly two 
miles in length, and comprising the present location of Fair- 
chance. During his lifetime the first coke furnaces were opened 
on his land, and they are to this day known as the Wynn furnaces, 
though now merged in the plants of the Frick Coal and Coke Com- 
pany. Mr. and Mrs. Wynn had the following named children: 
Sarah, born Sept. "7, lb35; Bryson, born Feb. 7, 1S3S, and 
Serena, born March 12, 1S40. Sarah and Bryson are single and 

live on part of the old farm. Serena married a Mr. Laughead, ^ 

and they had two children: Walter Wynn and Bose Eva. The <■ ,' \ 
latter is single, and she and her mother live on their farm, pur- 
chased of the Hadens, in the outskirts of Oliphant Furnace. The 
son, Walter Wynn Laughead, is married and has a daughter, Cor- 
delia, born Jan. 1G, 1S93, and Frank, born Sept. 23, 1894. The 
family own the old home of the Wynus. 

Sarah Ann Wynn, daughter of the second Isaac, was born 
Sept. 9, 1820, and lives with her son, Isaac, about four miles from 
Ohio Fyle, Ba., at the falls of the Youghiogheny river. She was 
married to James B. Mitchell on Sept. 28, 1S41. He was born 
Oct. 22, 1813, and died Xov. 28, 1875. To this worthy couple 
were born eight children : Milton S., bom Aug. 24, IS 12 ; Dorcas, 
born Oct. 1, 1844, single; Mary Jane, born Dec. 19, 1846, mar- 
ried Thomas Harden, and removed to Mt. Aver, Iowa, and their 
children are Frank, Harry, Walter, Mabel and Edith. Sabina 
was born Sept. 30, 1S49; married Taylor Markley, who is now 
dead; their children are Xellie and Blanch; Xellic married 
William Eittenhour and has child, Eugene. Serena, born Aug. 

21, 1S52, married Hiram Bailey of Ohio Byle, and had James, 
an only child ; he is married and lives at Omaha, Xeb. Isaac 
Wynn was born Jan. 21, 1S55, married Mary A. Bush; have no 
children. They occupy the old Mitchell homestead. Clarinda 
was tarn March 16, 185S, and married Thomas McFarland ; they 
live at McKeesport, Ba., and have a daughter Grace and son 
Edward — Grace is the wife of a Mr. Clark and lives near Bitts- 
burg; they have a daughter. Emma Mitchell was born Dec. 9, 
1861; single; now dead. Arthur B., a grandson of Sarah Ann 
Mitchell, was born April 26, 1868; he married May Leslie and 

283 



they had five children: Clyde, Bryan, Donald, Brown and Paul. 
The husband is dead, and the family live at Ohio Pyle. 

WAKNEK WYNNE BRANCH. 

Of the second brother, Warner Wynne, who came from Chester 
county to Fayette county, Pa., not a great deal is known. He was 
a Revolutionary soldier, enlisted in what was known as the Flying 
Camp id' volunteers. lie was under the command of his cousin, 
Col. Lambert Cadwalader, and probably in the same company as 
his other cousin, Lieut. Thomas Wynne. While engaged in the 
campaign around New York City his command was a part of the 
garrison of Foil Washington. 

Old Fort Washington was located on the highest eminence on 
Manhattan island, between what are now lSlst and lS6th streets 
of Xew York City, and about eleven miles from City Hall. It 
was a strong earthwork of irregular form, covering with its 
ravelins several acres. About twenty heavy cannons and some 
lighter piccts comprised its armament. The contour of the fort's 
embankments are still visible. In October, 1776, after General 
Howe had driven the Americans out of Xew York City, his forces 
followed Washington's army up the island, and at White Plains 
the latter were again defeated. Upon the advice of General 
Greene, and against his own sober judgment, General Washington 
left a'garrison of 3,000 men under General Magaw in Ft. Wash- 
ington with instructions to hold it against, both water or land 
attacks. About the 15th of November the British invested the 
fort with an army of S,000 men, and on the 16th made a general 
attack. Colonel Cadwaladcr's troops in the garrison wire sta- 
tioned on the south side and manned the lines outside the fort 
proper in the direction of Xew York. He had only l.">0 men with 
one eighteen-pounder. Lord Percey's troops, which attacked him, 
were repulsed, and. yielding, moved toward the left However, 
other British regiments under .Matthews and Stirling crossed the 
Harlem river and threatened to cut him off from the fort, where- 
upon Cadwalader retired along the road nearest the Hudson, 
closely followed by Percy, and battling all the way. When near 
the upper border of Trinity Cemetery (l.">lst street) he was at- 
tacked in flanks by Colonel Stirling, who was pressing across the 
island to intercept him. At this time Generals Washington, Put- 

284 







RESIDENCE OF SARAH WYNNE DEEM. KNIGHTSTOWN. IND. 



nam, Greene and fiercer had crossed from the Xew Jersey side to 
view the situation, and were at Morris House, and would un- 
doubtedly have been captured hut for the stubborn resistance of 
Colonel Cadwalader and his company of brave Pennsylvanians. 
Beaten hack by overwhelming forces, the gallant hand continued 
to retreat, and reached the fort after losing nearly half the men 
in killed and wounded. On the holder of the cemetery and near 
the fort, severe skirmishing took place, and many of the British 
pursuers wire slain. But further resistance being in vain, General 
Magavr surrendered the fort. The garrison were taken to Xew 
York and imprisoned until near the close of the war. Warner 
Wynne finally made his escape and walked all the way back bare- 
foot to his home in Chester county, Pa. 

After the war Warner Wynne moved west to Fayette county 
with his brothers. His wife's name was Mary; she died in 1S0S. 
He bought lands adjoining the lands of his brothers, the old deeds 
using his lands to partly describe the other tracts. It is presumed 
that one of his daughters married a Mr. Hughes and was the an- 
cestor of Isaac and Owen Hughes of Fairchance. They have some 
old deeds to his property, and Owen Hughes has some old Bible 
records bearing on the subject. 

Some time after the three brothers came west, one of their 
sisters also emigrated to Fayette county. Jane Wynn married 
William Nixon, a brother of Moses, and likewise left a large 
circle of descendants. Jane was born Jan. 1G, 1754, and died 
Dec. 27, 1831, age seventy-seven years. They were the parents 
of the following children: Allen, born Aug. 12, 1772; Moses, 
Jan. 19, 1774; John, Feb. 20, 1776; William, Nov. 15, 1778; 
Dorcas, Sept. 30, 1780; George, Dec. 15, 1782; Jacob, Sept. 20, 
1785; Samuel, May 0, 1789; Elizabeth, March 19, 1705; Isaac, 
June 10, 1707; Fanny, Xov. 25. 1799; William, Oct. 20, 1S02 ; 
Mary, April 23, 1805. It is probable that the first son named 
William died young; hence the second one of the name. The cus- 
tom was common in early days. The only one of the children of 
whom we found a record was Samuel Xixon, who married Hannah 

■ , and they had the following children: Jane, horn Feb. 23, 

1813; Keziah, Feb. 16, 1S15; Dorcas, Sept. 7, 1816; Eliza, Aug. 
20, 1818; Mary Ann, duly 24, 1820; William D., Oct. 5, 1S22; 
Ayres. July 15. 1824; Sarah, Feb. 4, 1^27; James, Dec. 3, 1828. 
The descendants of this familv arc verv numerous. 



THE THOMAS WYXXE BRANCH OF PENNSYLVANIA 
FAMILY. 

THE third son of Jonathan and Ann Wynne, who removed 
to Fayette county, Pa., from the ancestral home in Chester 
county, that State, was Thomas, who is the ancestor of the Indiana 
and Illinois Wynnes. He was horn in 17.~>2, and when barely 
twenty-one years old, lie took to himself a wife, Ann, whose sur- 
name the author is unable t<> discover. She was horn Jan. 31, 
1755. The young couple did as many another young couple has 
done before ami since: They followed "the star of empire" on 
its westward course, and found a land amid the valleys and moun- 
tains which give birth to the great Monongahela river, in what 
was then Westmoreland county, now Fayette, Pa., and here 
they carved from the unbroken forest a home for themselves. In 
the fullness of time a large family grew up around them, as is 
attested by their old Bible records, and from which the following 
birth notices are herein set forth: 

CIIII.OKK.X OF THOMAS AM) ANN \VV.\S. 

1. Benjamin Wynn, born Nov. 21, 1774. 

2. Thomas Wynn, horn dan. 26, 1777. 
'.',. Isaac Wynn, horn Feb. 2:1, 17S2. 

4. Ann Wynn, horn Oct. 2'.), 17S5. 

">. Jonathan Wynn, horn Oct. 1:5, 17*7. 

6. Elizabeth Wynn. boru Mar. 27, 1790. 

7. James Wynn, horn Alar. 16, 1702. 

Soon after the birth of little .) nines, the faithful wife was taken 
siek, and died on the 18th day of October, 1793, being laid to rest 
in the little cemetery on the farm which she had done so much to 
bring into being. The stricken father thus left desolate, with a 
home full of little children and no one to look after the household 
affairs, shortly afterwards married again. His second wife's 
name was Letitia, and she was born Oct. 31, 1771, but her family 
name is nowhere set forth. By this wife a numerous progeny was 
added to the children above given, to-wit: 

8. Rebekah Wynn, horn Mar. 1. 1795. 
!». Samuel Wynn. born Oct. 29, 1796. 

10. Mary Wynn, horn Nov. 4, 179S. 

288 












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MRS. RACHEL WYNNE MOVER AND FAMILY. WEATHERFORD, TEXAS 



11. John Wynn, born Nov. 19, 1S00. 

12. Isaac Wynn, born April S, 1802. 

13. Abraham Wynn, born July 17, 1804. 

14. Susannah Wynn, born Jan. 11, 1S07. 

15. Joseph Wynn, born May C, 1S09. 

10. Here the record is torn so that the following only 

remains: "June 21, 1S11, the Little B 

and was buried June 29." 

17. Anna Wynn, born Aug. 14, 1812. 

On the 9th day of June, 1819, the father, Thomas Wynn, died 
in the fullness of years, having fought the good fight, conquering 
the wilderness, and making it to blossom as the rose. His wife, 
Letitia, survived him for fifteen years, she dying on Nov. 30, 
1834. 

Concerning the future of a large number of the children whose 
birth dates are above set forth, the author has not been able to 
trace; neither can he tell how many reached the age of maturity, 
and are themselves ancestors of families growing from this com- 
mon stock. Mention elsewhere is made of the. lives of some of the 
number. However, this chapter will deal more especially with 
the career of the fifteenth child. 

Joseph AVynn came west in 1829, or thereabouts, when a mere 
lad, and settled in Fall Creek Valley, not far from the old town 
of Alforit, in Madison county, Indiana, where he grew to man- 
hood. He married Miriam about 1837. She was born 

Oct. 12, 1820. The fruits of this marriage were two sons and 
three daughters, as follows: 

David Thomas Wynn, born Jan. 15, 1838. 
Charles William Wynn, born Sept. 3, 1840. 
Elizabeth Jane Wynn, born Jan. 2, 1S43. 
Mary Ann Wynn, horn Jan. 27, 1S45. 
Margaret Caroline Wynne, born Mar. 17, 1S4S. 

Less than one month after giving birth to her last child the 
mother, Miriam, sickened and died on the 10th of April, 184S, 
in the twenty-eighth year of her life. She lies buried in the 
Alfont Cemetery, near her home. On Jan. 29, 1849, Mr. Wynn 
married Mary IT. Lvkins, who was born in Leaver county. Pa., 
on April 20, 1S22. Elder Daniel Franklin, one of the old leaders 

291 



of the Christian Church in Indiana, performed the ceremony in 
the home of the bride. They continued to reside on the old farm 
which Joseph had entered from the government. Tn the course of 
time another family of children grew up around them, the names 
and dates of birth of whom are appended: 

Catherine L. Wynn, horn Jan. '.», 1852. 

John M. Wynn, born July 28, 18.".:}. 

Isaac R. Wynn, born Nov. 25, 1S54. 

Gsojtge W. Wynn, born Dec. 10, 1861. 

Addie L. Wynn, born Feb. 2, 186S. 
Mr. Wynn was a hustling, busy man, and in the course of a 
long life accumulated a splendid fortune, his home farm contain- 
ing upwards <>f three hundred acres of as fine land as is to he 
found anywhere in the United States. It lies about one-half mile 
south of the old town of Alfont. and two miles north of the thriving 
little city of Fortville, Hancock county, Ind. Mr. Wynn was a 
leading- member of the Christian Church, and active in promoting 
all moral and religious undertakings in his community. On the 
13th day of December, 1S91, he was "called to his fathers." His 
mortal remains now lie beside his first wife in Alfont Cemetery 
within sight of the old homestead where he had so long lived and 
wrought his Master's will, lie died in his eighty-third year. 

Of the children of Joseph and Miriam Wynn most of them who 
reached the years of maturity are still living in and around the 
old homestead, which the author will name and describe as 
"Wynnefield." 

Charles William Wynn, when the war id' the Great Rehellion 
broke out, was just twenty-one years old. lie promptly took up 
arms in defense of the unity of his country : enlisted in the Eighth 
Indiana Volunteers, Colonel Benton; took part in twenty-four 
battles and sii^cs, served in Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mis- 
sissippi, Tennessee, Georgia, Kentucky and Virginia; was present 
at the siege of Vickshurg, and formed part of General Sheridan's 
command in the East, beginning with the battle of Cedar Creek. 
where his commander made the famous ride so graphically de- 
scribed by the pen of Buchanan Bea<L On Feb. 20, 1SG8, he 
married Louisa Frasier, daughter of William and Elizabeth Fra- 
sier, and tin 1 fruits of this union were: Cora Bell, horn Dec. 10, 
186S; Thomas Edgar, horn .Ian. 20, 1STO; Myrtle May, horn 

292 




MRS. LINNIE WYNNE WATSON AND FAMILY. CHRISMAN. ILL. 



April 17, 1874; Joseph William, born Dec. 2G, 1S7G; Frederick 
Grant, born Nov. 13, 1SS2. Of these children, Eddie died March 
2(5, 1^'.»4; Cora married Robert Beiler and lives in Alfont, Ind. 
■ — they have no children; Myrtle married Herbert Alford, April 
12, 1S91, and have three children; Mamie Inez, now fourteen 
years old; Vera Gladys, ten years old, and Thelma, three years 
old. 

David J. Wynne, the eldest son of Joseph Wynne, was born 
Jan. !.">, 1S38. He was a soldier in defense of the Union in the 
war of the Rebellion, anil soon after his return was married to 
Miss Susan Rash. They had one child, and the wife died 
in a few years, leaving Eme V., bom Oct. 5, 1SG6, who 
married George Davis on Oct. 7, 1SSS, and to this couple were 
born Fred Wynne, on Nov. 26, 1SS9, and Wilbur, on Xov. 23, 
1S9!). On Dec. 24, 1S74, David Wynne was married to Miss 
Florence Conger, who was born near Fortville on March 19, 1S4S. 
To them were born three children : 

1. Vernie L., born May 21, 1S7G; she married on Feb. 20, 
1S94, R. A. Burris, and to them were born Mary, March 5, 1S95, 
and Margaret, born Feb. 13, 1901. 

2. Mary Wynne, born Oct. 15, 1SS0 ; unmarried. She is 
agent of the I. TJ. Traction Company at Fortville. 

3. Joseph R. Wynne, born Jan. 30, 1SS8. 

George W. Wynn, who now lives on the old homestead of 
Joseph Wynn — ''Wynnefield" — was the fourth child of Joseph 
'and Mary Wynn. On March 4, 1SS2, he married Miss Rosa 
Hiday, and to bless their union three children were born: P>essie, 
born Dec. 15, 1SS3, died while young; Ilattie, born June 17, 
1SS7, who married a Mr. Collins, June 29, 1902, and has a child 
named Pauline; the third child of Mr. and Mrs. Wynn is Hazel, 
who was born Xov. 27, 1SS9, still single and living at home. 

Addie E. Wynn, the fifth child of Joseph and Mary Wynn, 
married Walter Alford, and they live upon part of the old farm. 
They have four children: Raymond, Mattie, Rena and John, 
all living. 

Catherine Eetitia Wynn, the eldest child of Joseph and Mary 
Wynn. married Reuben R. Alfont, Xov. S, 1S74, and have 
William, age twenty-four years, who is a lieutenant in the regular 
army; Fanny, married to Othello Huston; Minnie, dead; Walter, 

295 



twenty years old ; Clarence, Ernest and Dallas, living', and three 
dead. 

Isaac K. Wvnn, the third son of Joseph and Mary, married 
Marietta Alfont, Feb. 20, 1S7.">, and now resides in Brightwood, 
Ind., a suburb » > t* Indianapolis. They have no children. 

Mary, the widow of Joseph Wvnn, is still living with her chil- 
dren, a hale, hearty and unusually well-preserved lady, in her 
eighty-sixth year. 

John M. Wvnn. the son of Joseph ami Mary, died while young. 

Mary Ann Wynn, the second daughter of Joseph and Miriam 
Wvnn, was born .Jan. 2!', 1845, and on Dec. 21, 1865, she married 
George W. Ifert, who was born June i>, ls:57. They had two 
children: Mary Ann, born Sept. IT, 1866, and Charles L., born 
Aug. 22, 1868. Mary Ann married Wellington M. Wiseman on 
Jan. 29, 1SS7, and had one son, Glenn F. Wiseman, born Aug. 21, 
1890. Charles L. Ifert married Miss Ida Wells on Sept. 29, 
1896, and they have one son, Paul S., who was horn Dec. 18, 
189S. Mary Ann Ifert, the mother, died April 10, 1904. 

Mary Wynne, the tenth child of Thomas and Letitia Wynne of 
Fayette county, Pa., was born Xov. 4, 1798. She came west with 
her brother Joseph and family, and was married to Henry Iliday 
near Fortville, Ind., 'and the couple continued to reside there 
during the remainder of their lives. They had eight children: 
Nancy, John Henry, Thomas, Jacob, Joseph, Archibald, Eliza- 
beth and Mary. These children in turn married ami have children, 
so that this Hiday-Wynne branch of the family numbers a great 
many, most of the individuals composing it still continuing to 
reside near the old homestead. The old farm is owned by Thomas, 
one of the first named children, who married Miss Jane Doty, 
and has two children — Charles, who married Mattie Hunter, has 
one daughter, Lora, who is the wife of a Mr. Bell. The latter 
'couple have no children. Angeline, the second child of Thomas, 
married John Cottrell, and they live on the old Iliday farm. 
They have four children. 

John Henry Iliday was horn April 17, 1S49, and married his 
cousin, Margaret C, daughter of Joseph Wynne, and they live at 
Fortville, 1ml. They were married Sept. 10, 1869, and have a 
numerous progeny, to-wit : 

296 



to 



y 114 ■ 



a&{ 




THE FIVE HIDAY BROTHERS (Soldiers). FOKTVILLE, IND. 



ARCHIBALD 
JOSEPH 



JACOB 
JOHN H. 



1. John L., b. Dec. 29, 1S70, married Lydia Lindamood, and 
have one child, Buren, age three years. 

2. Arvil C, b. Oct. 22, 1S73, married Frances "White, and 
have three boys — Arvil, S years ; Kyle, years, and Henry, 4 
years. 

3. Ella K., b. Sept. 15, 1S75, married Thos. Keslcr; child, 
Ruth, 2 years. 

4. Miriam A., b. Jan. 30, 187S, married George Kesler; child, 
John, 3 years. 

5. Mary L., b. Xov. 7, 1SS0, married James Morris, two 
children — Margaret, 3 years, and Mary, C months. 

6. Lydia, b. Xov. 7, 1SS3 ; dead. 

7. Dora, b. Sept. 11, 1887; dead. 

Joseph Hiday married Miriam Shortridge and moved to Iowa; 
they had three children — Archibald, Mary and Miriam. On the 
death of his wife, he married again in that State, and had three 
more children — Lizzie, "William and Thomas. Some years after- 
wards he returned to Fortville, and in turn married Sarah Huston, 
and Sarah Speers, but had no other children. 

Jacob Hiday married Margaret Wallace, who soon died. He 
then married Sarah Emery and they had three children — John, 
Charles and Samantha. Afterwards he married Xancy Stans- 
berry and had four children — Jesse, Hamilton, Emerson and 
Jonathan. 

Archibald Hiday married Elizabeth Clark and had five chil- 
dren, as follows : 

1. Charles, who married Dora Wynne, and they have two chil- 
dren — Laverne, four years, and Lavonne, two years. 

2. Eanny, who married Jeremiah Gwynn, no children. 

3. Sarah, who married William Ferrell, one child — Imel, 
three years. 

4. James, who is married ; has no children. 

5. Tracy ; not married. 

Elizabeth Hiday, the youngest child of Mary Wynnc-Hiday, 
married John Skinner, and lives north of Fortville, on Fall creek. 
They have two children: Hadvn, who is married but has no chil- 
dren, and Charles, who married Lizzie Wiggins, and has two 
children. 



Mary II i<lay married John Sherman and they now live in the 
State of Washington. They have children. 

Nancy Iliday was born Hay 22, 1821, and is the eldest child 
of Mary WynneJIiday. On the 2Sth of Tune, 1840, she mar- 
ried Samuel I!. Cottrell, who was horn Aug. !», 1821. They had 
seven children: Margaret E., b. May 28, 1M1; Susan Jane, b. 
Nov. 12, INI:.; Nancy M., h. Dec. 22, IMS; Charlotte A., b. Feb. 
22, 1852; John 11.. b. Dec. 2. IS54; Thomas W., b. Oct. 2, 1858; 
Amanda A., b. Dec 2, 1S60. 

The five son- of Mary Wynne-IIiday enlisted in the Union 
army, and served throughout the war of the Great Rebellion with 
distinction. They all returned safe and sound, and are still living. 

Of the other children of Thomas Wynne of Fayette county, 
only incomplete records are known to exist. Of Jonathan and 
Joseph the fullest accounts are given elsewhere. Samuel emigrated 
to the "West, stopping for a while in Haneoefe county, Ind., and 
then moving on to Illinois in 1850. Abraham came also to Han- 
cock county, Ind., in 1850, and afterwards moved to Missouri. 
Susannah came to Indiana and married Charles Doty. Anna, 
the youngest child of Thomas Wynne, Sr., also came to Hancock 
county, Ind., and married John Jarrett. The record of James 
Wynn and family i- set forth elsewhere. Rebecca, the eldest 
child of Thomas and Letitia Wynn, born 1705, was married to 
a Mr. Abraham, and died Oct. 22. 1817. 

The following lines were found on a small piece of paper by 
Mrs. Serena Wynn Laughead while having her home at Oliphant 
Furnace, Pa., remodeled in 1905. The paper hail been concealed 
behind the mantel of the fireplace. The house had been the old 
homestead of the Iladons, and the writing is that of the elder 
Thomas Wynn, who moved West from Chester county. It seems 
to be a safe conduct from one in authority: 
"Tlios. Wynn's Compliments to John lladen: 

''Sir: I should he glad to have you come and see me some con- 
venient opportunity, either at night or on Sunday. If you are 
doubtful of others you certainly are not of me. I will use every 
means honestly to do you justice. I will not detain you on any 
score or under any pretense whatever, but you shall he at liberty 
to come and go when you please. Perhaps your compliance with 
this may be of u-o to us both. From yr frd Thos. Wynn.'' 

"Uniontown, Pa., December, 1805." 

300 



JONATHAN WVNN III. 

JONATHAN W'VXN, grandson of Jonathan Wynne of Block- 
ley, bought in 1774 the farm knows as .Marsh Farm, located 
along the Concstoga pike, in East Nanfniel township, Chester 
county, Pa., consisting of 168 acres and 144 rods, lie made the 
purchase of Thomas Penn, tile son, and John Peun, the grandson, 
of William IVim, the founder of the Colony. The farmhouse 
was partly of stone and partly of wood; it sets on an elevation 
above the road, and in the side of a hill; a considerable portion of 
the farm was lowland and swampy, but Mr. Wynne cut a large 
ditch through this part, draining into Brandywine creek, the 
waters of which flow past the battlefield of the famous Revolu- 
tionary battle of Brandywine. lie also built a stone wall about 
the house, which still remains. He married Miss Letitia Hewitt. 
He had quite a huge family, comprising the following children: 
Mary, Rachel, Ann, Jennie, Susan, Lettie, John and Jonathan. 
Of these, Lettie and Jonathan died during their minority. 

Rachel Wynn married Hugh Huston, and they shortly after- 
wards moved to the neighborhood of Circlevillc. Ohio. Their 
children were Eliza Ann, Susan, Mary Jane, Franklin and Martin 
Luther. We have no trace of these children, except Eliza Ann, 
who married a Mr. Austen and moved to Belton, Texas, where 
her mother joined her after the death of her husband, Mr. Huston. 
Rachel died in 1866, and lies buried in the cemetery at Belton. 
All her children are dead at this date. Mrs. Austen had seven 
children: Henry, Franklin. Martin Luther, George N., Charles 
IL, Hugh and William T., all of whom are living in Texas. 

Mrs. Estella "Williams of Fort Worth, Texas, is a daughter of 
Mary Jane Huston Hull, who was the daughter of Rachel Wynne 
and Hugh Huston. .Mary, another daughter of Mary -lane, was 
married and lived in Urbana, 111. She is now dead, hut left issue. 

Ann, daughter of Jonathan Wynn of .Marsh Farm, was born 
July 4. 17S6, and married James Huston, who was horn Aug. 25, 
17S2. They were married in Chester county, Pa., and removed 
to Pickaway county, Ohio. The following are their descendants: 

Jonathan W.. of whom presently. 

Robert, horn May 25, 1811, .lied Sept. 15, 1834. 

Susan Jane, horn Oct. 12, 1813, died July 2, 1896. 

301 



Jolm C, born March 15, 1S16. 

Letitia E., horn Oct. 7, IS 10, died Oct. 2, 1899. 

Nelson, born April 9, 1822, died March 4, 1S7S. 

James Hubert, born .Tune 9, 1825, died April 2, 1899. 

Rachel Ann, bom Nov. 29, 1827, died Aug. 29, 1884. 

.lames Huston, the father, died March 31, 1S27, and his wife, 
Ann Wynn Huston, followed him to the grave on Aug. 21, 1S2S. 
The three daughters never married; they lived for several years 
at Monticello, 111., where they died. We have no further account 
of any of the other children except the eldest, Jonathan W., whose 
family record we find as follows: 

Their son, Jonathan W. Huston, was bora .March 4, 1S09, and 
on April 4, 18:5.°), he married Sarah Reber, who was born Jan. 
30, 1817. They had the following children: Mary Ann, born 
Aug. 25, 1834; Laura Jane, b. Jan. 26, 1836; Clay Henry, b. 
Oct. 8, 1837; Corwin Thomas, b. Teh. 11, 1840; Edson Robert, 
b. Jan. 4, 1842; Laura Estell, b. Jan. 5, 1S44; Ann Eliza, b. 
June 20, 1840; Andrew H., b. April 11, 184S; Sarah Emma, b. 
Jan. 20, 1850; John Leber, b. April 22, 1852. Soon after the 
birth of her last son the mother died, and later Mr. Huston mar- 
ried Luvana H. Pitkin, horn June 9, 1830. They had the fol- 
lowing children: Infant, died unnamed, b. Oct. 31, 1854; Felix, 
b. March 10, 1857; Edward, b. Nov. 10, 1858; Lincoln, b. Aug. 
10, 1800; James, b. June 0. 1802; Harry, b. May 0, 1804; Nel- 
son, b. Aug. 10, 1800; Franklin, b. Oct. 10, 1808; Maud, b. Feb. 
28, 1871; Grace, b. Oct. 1, 1873; Charles R., h. Oct. 30, 1875; 
Luvanc, b. April 1, ls7S. 

Of these children, we have been unable to gain further knowl- 
edge, except that Reber Huston now lives at Monticello, 111., 
where he is engaged in real estate, loans and conveyances. Grace, 
one of the younger daughters of Jonathan Huston, is a prominent 
physician of Sunhury, Pa. James Huston lives, we understand, 
at Danville, 111. Edson Robert still lives at South Bloomfield, 
Pickaway county, Ohio. We are indebted to bis wife, Anna M. 
Huston, for a great part of above statement concerning the de- 
scendants of Ann Wynne. 

Susan Wynn married a ^Ir. Rougher, and settled also near Oir- 
cleville, Ohio. Mi-s. BougheT went back to Marsh Farm on a 
visit to her old home in ISIS, riding horseback the whole way, in 

302 




y * 
I 









\ 



■ 



: 



i 

i 

ij^ ' 



MRS. OLA. WYNNE HUDSON AND FAMILY. MOUWEQUA. ILL. 



company with some friends. We have no trace of her offspring, 
except one of them lived in Decatur, 111., and another at Dan- 
ville, Til. 

Jane Wynn married John Root and moved to Philadelphia. 
Their children were Lettie, Elizabeth and John. They all 
worked for a Mr. McCauley, who was a tanner. Mrs. McCauley 
was John Root's sister. The Wynnes of Chester comity used to 
take hides down there to exchange for leather. The tannery was 
in the south part of Philadelphia. Lettie married a man, name 
unknown to us. Elizabeth married a Mr. Brogan; they did well 
and lived happily. John was unmarried in 1S42. There may 
have been another son. Aunt Jennie came up to Chester county, 
Pa., to attend the funeral of her sister, Mary. 

Mary Wynn married her cousin, Jonathan Wynn, of whom 
presently. 

THE HUSTOX "COAT OF ARMS." 

"At an early period in the history of the Hustons, John Huston, 
with a body of soldiers, reinforced a broken column, and for his 
great courage and unexampled energy was knighted on the field 
of battle. The greyhounds indicate the ileetness of his command 
in coming to the rescue; the 'last sand' in the hour glass, the 
perilous extremity of the army ; and the motto, 'in tempore,' its 
victory. It is the tradition that the Hustons dwelt in the lowlands 
of Scotland, and the registering of their coat of arms in the gov- 
ernment office at London, proves satisfactorily that their standing 
was somewhat, elevated. It is moreover affirmed that they are of 
Celtic origin, being unmixed with either Saxon, Danish or Xor- 
man. They took a decided stand in favor of the Reformation ; 
adopted early the tenets of Calvin; sustained with their substance 
and hearts' blood the religious views of John Knox ; and were 
persecuted for their rigid adherence to the Bible alone as their 
rule of faith and practice, and to the 'Presbytery' as the scrip- 
tural form of church government. 

"Many of them lied to the north of Ireland to be safe from the 
power of their bloodthirsty enemies. At what time the Hustons 
first tool; up an abode in Ireland it is impossible, perhaps, to 
ascertain now; but we are credibly informed that many of them 
were there in the memorable year of 16SS, who with other brave 

305 



co-patriots and co-religionists, having sustained the terrific siege 
of Londonderry, shared in the final triumph there. Their re- 
sistance, stern and gloriously successful, was followed by the 
disgraceful departure of the Popish forces of James II, and turned 
the scale in favor of William and Mary; secured to William the 
crown of England, and to the nation a Protestant succession of 
kings and queens down to the present hour. History has estab- 
lished these facts beyond all reasonable question or doubt." 

(Furnished by Reber Huston, real estate broker, Monticello, 
111., and was obtained through Ward T. Huston of Chicago.) 



JONATHAN WYXX IV. 

THE subject of this sketch was one of the remarkable men 
of his race, and left an indelible impress upon his posterity, 
as well as the generation in which he lived. Physically he was 
tall and muscular, lean to gauntness, and capable of great en- 
durance. Of strong mind, mentally and morally; imperious 
of will, yet warm-hearted, passionate .and courageous, mild, 
gentle and generous; a thoroughgoing Christian character, com- 
bined with native shrewdness and sound, practical common sense, 
made him a man of note in every community in which he resided. 
Mr. Wynn was born in Fayette county, Pa., a neighborhood 
nestled in the valley which is formed by the two branches of the 
Youghiogheny river, in the southwestern part of the- State. While 
still a young man he came East to Chester county to visit his 
uncle Jonathan and family, and there he fell in love with his 
beautiful cousin, Mary Wynn. His affection was returned by the 
young girl, and soon their troth was plighted. But when young 
Jonathan came to ask of Mary's father the hand of his sweetheart 
he was met by stern refusal, based upon consanguinal reasons. 
Xo argument could avail to win the parents' consent, so the usual 
method of an elopement was planned and triumphantly executed 
on Dec. 10, 1S12. However, in due course of time a reconcilia- 
tion was effected, and the young couple was established on a 
corner of the home farm, where Jonathan, who had learned the 
blacksmith trade, opened a shop, and began his career. On Xov. 

306 



20, IS 1:5, a son was born to tlicni, whom they named John Evan, 
and on March IS, 1816, a daughter came to bless their home. 
This last visitor was named Rachel Ann. Soon afterwards Mary's 
father and mother both died, about the year 1817, and the young 
family moved away to Orwieksburg, a German town in Schuylkill 
county, fifty miles distant, whore Mr. Wynn opened a smith shop. 
Here another daughter, Susan Jane, was born on Sept. 1!>, ISIS. 
Soon after Mr. Wynn was induced to move to Olds' Forge, not far 
away, and there a son, Thomas, was burn Nov. 20, 1S20; but the 
location not being a desirable one, he moved back to Orwieksburg, 
where a third daughter, Elizabeth Mary, was born Sept. 2S, 1823. 

In 1820 Mr. Wynn and family moved to Pottsville, the county 
seat of Schuylkill county, about eight miles distant. It was in 
Pottsville that Mr. Wynn began a very prosperous financial ca- 
reer. He opened two smith shops and employed several mechanics. 
In those days, when all sorts of tools and iron work were made by 
hand, the trade was an extensive and profitable one. But Mr. 
Wyuu did not confine himself exclusively to his trade. lie bought 
of Mr. John l'otts, the founder of the town and one of the wealthy 
ironmasters of that day, a tract of land adjoining the town and 
had it surveyed and platted, lie built several houses, and sold 
and traded in real estate until he had acquired considerable prop- 
erty ; afterwards he opened a store and added a mercantile line to 
his other business. It is related of him that he served several 
terms as constable, the office being equivalent in those days to 
that of town marshal. In this office he attained quite a reputation 
in those rough and ready days, and it is related of him that often 
when an affray was in progress on the streets it was only needful 
to raise the cry, •"Wynn 's coming!" to cause an instant scattering 
of the crowd, fighters as well as bystanders. The plat of Pottsville 
still shows Wynn's addition in what is now the heart of a city 
of fifteen thousand people. 

While Jonathan and Mary were thus building up their fortunes 
in other fields of usefulness, the old Marsh Farm, where they 
started, had been entrusted since the old people's death to the care 
of the hitter's son John, who married and continued to reside there 
until the heirs wanted a division. John, acting as administrator, 
placed the farm on sale, and Jonathan Wynn bought the one hun- 
dred and eightv-nine acre- comprising the farm for the sum of 



$2,653.90V^. This sale was confirmed by the court on Feb. 3, 
18:50. In 1832 the family moved back to this farm and con- 
tinued to reside there for several years. Mr. Wyim sent his 
brother-in-law, John, to Pottsville to look after his interests there, 
but the latter, not being of a commercial turn, became dissatisfied, 
and so Mr. Wynn closed out all his interests there. At Marsh 
Farm, the eldest sun, John Evans Wynn, died March 1, ISM. 
The eldest daughter, Rachel, was married to Isaac X. Zeubliu on 
Nov. 0, 1S37, soon after which the mother, Mary, sickened and 
died on Feb. 19, 1S38. Her remains were interred alongside 
those of her son in the burying ground attached to Good Will 
Methodist Church, a place of worship located about three miles 
west of Marsh Farm, and now situated in West Nantmel town- 
ship. On Nov. 10, 1S3S, the second daughter, Susan, married 
Mr. Christian Arnold. 

In December, 1S3S, Jonathan Wynn again married, this time 
to Pbcbe Crossley, and the succeeding year, 1839, he with his new 
wife and remaining son, Thomas, moved to Madison county, Lid., 
leaving his farm in the East under the tenancy of his sons-in-law, 
Zcublin and Arnold. He bought for bis new home a farm a short 
distance west of the old town of A If out, now Ingalls, on the banks 
of Fall creek. Here three additional children, Isaac, Sarah and 
Phebe, were born, and here their mother died. She lies buried 
in the neighborhood cemetery near the farm. In the meantime 
Mr. Wynne went back to Pennsylvania and sold Marsh Farm to a 
Richard Thatcher, receiving therefor $8,000.00, the deed bearing 
date of April 1, 1843. Previous to this sale, however, his daugh- 
ter, Elizabeth, was married at Marsh Farm to Mr. William Mills 
on April 1-1, 1S42. 

With the proceeds of the sale of his Pennsylvania farm be pur- 
chased a farm in Edgar county, 111., one mile north of the old 
town of Ploomnekl and two and a half miles south of the present 
prosperous town of Chrisman. Here he installed his son Thomas 
and the Arnolds, who came West in 1843. He himself sold his 
Fall creek farm and moved with his small children to Pendleton, 
buying a large house on North State street, which he occupied. 
lie also bought the old Huntsville mills, near that place, and 
engaged in both flour and lumber milling. The mill burned down, 
and be rebuilt the structure on a larger scale. While at Pendle- 

308 




ISAAC NEWTON WYNNE. MINERAL WELLS. TEXAS 



ton he married Asenath McFarran, a widow, and moved his 
fainilv to Huntsville to be closer to his business. Finally he 
traded the mills to a .Mr. Cockayne for a farm in Spring Valley 
settlement, three miles cast of Pcndelton. By his last wife lie had 
two daughters, Asenath and Caroline, who were born at Hunts- 
ville. lie lived for a few years on the Spring Valley farm and 
then removed to his farm in Illinois. During a trip which he 
made westward in 1856, looking for some desirable land invest- 
ment, he was taken sick and died at Montieello, 111., on July 10th 
of that year. His remains were brought back and interred in a 
family cemetery on his own farm, which is now owned by his 
grandson, John YV. Wynn, of Paris, Til. 

Rachel, the eldest daughter of Jonathan and Mary Wynn, was 
married to Isaac X. Zeublin at Marsh Farm on Nor. 9, 1S37, and 
continued to reside in Chester county for several years. Mr. 
Zeublin was a descendant of Swiss ancestors, the records dating 
back to 1545, when Felix Zublin emigrated from the Tottenberg, 
a valley in the Canton of St. Gallon, to the town of St. Gallen. 
There the family developed several branches, and in 1744 Hans 
Joachim Zublin came to Parisburg, Carolina, where be raised a 
family. Later he removed to Savannah, Ga., where he died in 
1781. A street in that city is named for him. He was a Reform 
preacher. He left two sons, David and John. David was the 
father of the husband of Rachel Wynn. This couple had three 
children: Jonathan, born Sept. 24, 1S3S; Mary, born July, 
1840, and John Evans, born Oct. 2, 1S42, all born at Marsh 
Farm. The family soon afterwards came to Pendleton, Ind., 
where Mr. Z. engaged in various businesses, finally becoming 
possessed of considerable property, but the financial panic of 1873 
was disastrous to his fortunes. Rachel died in 1S74, after long 
continued ill health; Mr. Zeublin dying some years later. 

The eldest sun, Jonathan W. Zeublin, was born Sept. 24, 1S3S, 
in Chester comity, Pa., and resided there until Oct. 1, 1851, when 
with his parents he came to Pendleton, Ind., where he lias resided 
ever since. He was associated with his father in mercantile pur- 
suits, and attended school at Pendleton, and later in Ft. Wayne 
College, until the outbreak of the Civil War, when he enlisted, 
Aug. 8, 1S62, as a private in the 89th Regiment. Ind. Vol. He 
was immediately elected first sergeant, and on Aug. 29, 1862, was 

311 



commissioned a lieutenant. He resigned iii 18G3 on account of 
disabilities. lie took part in the battle of Mumfordsville, Ky., 
where forty-five hundred Union troops were captured by General 
Bragg's Confederate army after an engagement of two days. Mr. 
Z. is a member of the M. E. Church; also a prominent member 
of Pendleton Lodge, Xo. 88, and Sinai Encampment, Xo. 54, 
Daughters of Rebecca, Xo. 1 -30, and Canton Indianapolis, Xo. 2, 
I. O. O. F. He is also a member of Major Henry Post, G. A. R., 
and is permanent secretary of the S9th Regimental Association. 
On Xov. 29, 1S64, Mr. Z. was united in marriage with Miss 
Marietta Reed of Lafayette, Ind., and the following children 
blessed this union, both born in Pendleton, Ind.: 

Xellie Reed Zeublin, born Oct. 1, 1865, died Sept. 6, 1867. 

Emma Lyle Zeublin, born Sept. 26, 1S69. She was married 
on June 21, 1899, to Mr. William F. Morris, Jr., a banker of 
Pendleton, where they reside. On June 2S, 1903, a daughter, 
.Mildred, was born to them. 

Mr. Jonathan Zeublin has for many years engaged in farming, 
and his elegant suburban home, on the heights overlooking the 
cataracts of Fall creek, is one of the landmarks of Madison county. 

Mary E. Zeublin, the only daughter of Rachel, was married to 
Rev. John Hill, a Methodist minister, and they lived at various 
places, wherever the Conference might send them. Tn May, 1ST2, 
Mr. Hill was killed at Milwaukee by falling backwards from a 
wagon in which he was standing. The children of this marriage 
were Charles, Howard, Walter, Luella and Xettie. They are all 
married and doing well. Charles is in Chicago, Walter in Wis- 
consin, Howard in Evanstun, 111. Luella married Mr. Horace 
Dickerman, and resides at Montelair, X. J., while Xettie married 
Walter Sharp, and lives in Indianapolis. 

John E. Zeublin married Miss Xettie Follette of Xewark, Ohio. 
Mr. Z. served (hiring the Civil War as a telegraph operator, 
and afterwards held employment in the Western Union and Postal 
Union Telegraph Companies, and afterwards in the Central 
Union Telephone Company at Chicago, lie died about 1900. 
Mr. ami Mrs. Z. had but one child. Charles E., who i< now a 
member of the faculty of Chicago University, an author of some 
prominence, and a platform orator. His home is in Chicago. 



312 



Susan Jane Wynn, daughter of Rev. Jonathan Wynn, was born 
at Orwieksburg, Pa., Sept 19, 1818; was married to Christian J. 

Arnold at Marsh Farm on Xov. 10, 1838. They remained on the 
farm of her father for one year; then moved to Carventry, six 
miles away, where they stayed two years, moving thence to Spring- 
field* Pa., in West Nantmel township, where Mr. Arnold engaged 

in the dry goods trade with Elijah Pull. In 1844, he sold out, 
and the family came West to Edgar county, PL, where he in con- 
nection with his brother-in-law, Thomas Wynn, occupied Rev. 
Mr. Wynn's farm for about one year, when he engaged in teach- 
ing. Went into ministry, served :it Danville in 1850, Montieello, 
Camargo and other good charges. Bought farm near Mouwequa 
in 1870; lived there till his death en April 19, 1872. Susan J. 
continued to live there till 1S74, when she sold out and came to 
live with her brother in Edgar county, 111. ; afterwards at her 
sister French's. In 18*4 she bought an orange plantation in 
De Land, Fla., where she died .Tidy 1, 1897. 

The children of Mr. and Mrs. Arnold were Hannah Ann and 
Mary Elizabeth, twins, who were born at Marsh Farm, Pa., on 
Jan. 11, 1840. They died within three days of diphtheria, when 
about six years of age. A son, Charles, was born October, 1849. 
He married while living near Mouwcqua, TIL, and had a daughter, 
Blanche. He was killed while in the employ of a railroad com- 
pany. His daughter lives in Columbus, Ohio. Jonathan Evans, 
another son of Susan, was born Feb. 13, 1852, at Montieello, 111. 
He married Lydia Hoe] at Ridge Farm, Til. They resided in 
Illinois for a time, but finally moved to Florida, where they have 
since resided at Orlando, that State. Their children are Polio, 
born in Illinois, a daughter, and Charles and Lisle, the latter 
three born in Florida. Mr. Arnold has for many years been 
deputy postmaster in his home town. 

Elizabeth Wynn, youngest daughter of Rev. Jonathan and 
Mary Wynn. was born at Orwieksburg, Schuylkill county, Pa., 
on Sept. 28, 1823. In 1826 she went with her parents to live at 
Pottsville. the county seat of Schuylkill county. In 1832 they 
moved to. Marsh Farm, Chester county, where she lived for a 
time with her parent.-, and afterwards with her sister, until her 
marriage with Sir. William Mills on April 14, 1842. The couple 
moved to Pottsville, where Mr. Mills followed the occupation of 

313 



carpenter, and was conducting quite a successful business at the 
time of his death, which occurred Jan. 12, 1S45. lie left his 
widow and two little daughters — Emma, born May 22, 1843, and 
Alice, born Sept. 1, 1845 — the latter of whom joined her father 
"on tlic other side," dying in -May, 1846. Elizabetb and her re- 
maining daughter went back to Chester county and lived with her 
sister Rachel for a short time, and came West in 1850 to her 
father's home in Spring Valley. Here she met James E. French, 
whom she married at the Spring Valley farm, near Pendleton, 
hid., on Dec. 24, 1S50, and they continued to reside in and about 
Pendleton for many years, Mr. French being a cabinet-maker by 
trade. In 1870 he, with his brother-in-law, Zeublin, ami others, 
became interested in the Cataract Woolen Mills at Pendleton, hut 
the enterprise not proving successful, the factory was changed to 
a flour and lumber mill. Through the mismanagement of the 
superintendent, and the financial panic of 1S73, the company 
became involved, and the Frenches lost most of their fortune. In 
1S83 they went to Richmond and resided there for two years. In 
1SS6 Mr. French accepted a position as instrument inspector of 
the Postal Union Telegraph Company, with headquarters at Bal- 
timore, Md., remaining there two years. In 1SSS they moved t" 
Evansville, Ind., where tiny resided two years, until Mr. French's 
health became so had that they concluded to change climate. They 
spent eighteen months in Florida, and then resided at Indian- 
apolis, Ind., until 1891. The winter of 1S91 they spent in 
Knightstown, Ind.. and in the spring of 1S92 they returned to 
Pendleton, Ind., when 1 Mr. French died on Aug. t~l, 1892, and lies 
buried in the Falls Cemetery, near that town. The widow, Eliza- 
beth M., continued to reside at Pendleton till 1S93, when she 
went to live with her grandaugbter, Mrs. ,1. C. Weaver, at Green- 
ville, Ohio, where she still resides. 

Elizabeth Amelia, the daughter of Elizabeth Wynn, was horn 
in Pottsville, Pa., on May 22. 1S43, and was brought West when 
a child by her grandfather Wynn. She was married at Pendle- 
ton, Ind., on Dee. 2-1. 1864, to Dr. Harry Cunningham, of War- 
rington, Ind. The result of ibis union was three children: Anna 
Rebecca, born dan. 11, 186(5, at Pendleton; Ursom Mills, horn 
Feb. 14, 1S6S, at Warrington, and Elizabeth, born at Pendleton, 
May 4, l^Tl. The family moved to St. Catherine, Canada, after- 

311 



; 



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i 



I 



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MRS. MARY WYNNE SOTHERS AND FAMILY. KANSAS 



wards living in Winchester and Indianapolis, Ind. Mrs. Cun- 
ningham died in the latter city March 12, 1890, and was buried 
at Pendleton. 

Anna, the eldest daughter of Dr. and Mrs. Cunningham, was 
married Sept. 27, 1S93, at Pendleton, to Mr. Jonathan C. Weaver, 
a prominent druggist of" Greenville, Ohio, where they have since 
resided. They have two children: Howard Ersom, born Feb. G, 
1S95, and Esther, born March 30, 189&, both living. 

Ursom M. Cunningham was married to Catherine Crossley at 
Indianapolis, Aug. 7, 1S92. He is an operator in employ of the 
Western Union Telegraph Company, and the family now live in 
Chicago. They have two children: Catherine, born in Chicago, 
Aug. 1, 1895, and Margery, bom in Chicago, Feb. 12, 1901. 

Elizabeth Cunningham was married at Indianapolis to Mr. 
George Spence in December, 1891. The husband died there July 7, 
1892. Afterwards the widow married Charles S. Peeves, in Illi- 
nois, Sept. 18, 1894. The couple moved to Miland, Minn., where 
Roy Ersom, their eldest child, was born, Feb. 3, 1890. They 
moved to Virginia, Minn., January, 1897, where Ralph was born, 
Dec. 16, 1S98, and Frank and Clarence were born Aug. 30, 1900. 
They moved to Wert, Texas, in September, 1901, and June Lu- 
cille was born there Feb. 18, 1902. The family now lives at York, 
Ala. Mr. Peeves is a telegraph operator. 

Of the children of Jonathan Wynn by his second wife, Isaac, 
the eldest, died while the family resided at Pendleton about the 
year 18-15. Sarah married .Mr. Nathaniel Mills, a brother of 
William Mills, the husband of her half-sister, Elizabeth, and they 
moved to Wilkesbarre, Pa., where they lived for many years, 
and where Sarah died about the year 1S9G, leaving two daughters. 
The third child, Phebe, married Mr. Taylor Walls, the agent of 
the C, C, C. Ar St. L. railroad at Pendleton, in the year 1864, and 
continued to reside there until after Mr. Walls' death, which oc- 
curred in 1S73; the results of this union being three boys, Harry, 
Edward and William, and a girl, May. In 1S7<'> Phebe married 
Mr. Wesley Schooley and they moved to Stockwell, Tippecanoe 
county, Ind., where they purchased a farm and continued to reside 
till Mrs. Schooley's death, which occurred in October, 1S94. Of 
Phebe's children by her first husband, Harry committed suicide 
while yet a young man; Edward married a Miss Wallace and now 

317 



lives in California; William lived to be seventeen years old, and 
while hunting accidentally shot himself, the wound proving fatal; 
tlie daughter, May, married and lives in Memphis, Tenn. Besides 
these children, Phebe gave birth to twins, who died in infancy. 
By her second husband she had one daughter, Bertha, who lives 
with her father in Elkhart, Ind. 

Of the children of Rev. Jonathan Wynn's third marriage, 
Asenath was horn at Pendleton, Ind., Sept. 9, 18-16; Caroline, 
born April 20, 1S4S; Jonathan, horn April 2S, 1852. The last 
child died Aug. S, 1^53. Asenath married Mr. Isaac D. Bosworth 
at Kinmundy, 111., >Scpt. 22, 1>>G7. They lived for a year in 
Indianapolis, and afterwards moved to Anderson, Ind., where 
she resided till her death, June 13, 1^93. From this marriage 
three children resulted: Asenath Luella, born Jan. 6, 1809; Alda 
Estella, born Sept 1", 1873, and Isaac Gordon, born Aug. S, 
1877. The eldest, Asenath Luella, was born in Indianapolis. On 
Dec. 15, 1890, she was married to W. S. Poling. They have made 
their home in Anderson ever since. They have one child, Asenath 
Aubrey, born Jan. 13, 1S'J2. 

Alda Estella was born in Anderson. On Xov. 20, 1891, she 
married Guy J. Derthick of Johnstown, Ohio, and removed to 
the husband's home, where their son, Harold, was born Dec. 17, 
1898. They moved to Anderson, Ind., in 1901, where they now 
reside. 

Isaac Gordon Bosworth was born in Anderson. He served in 
the Spanish-American war; was doing service in Cuba. On July 
1C, 1900, he was married to Miss Lena Sicbel, who died Xov. 13, 
1903. No children. Mr. B. made his home in Anderson till 
1905, when he removed to Kokomo, where he now resides. 

The second daughter, Caroline, married a Mr. Fairchild of 
Wisconsin. They had a son, Walter, born in 18G6. His present 
whereabouts is unknown. Afterwards Caroline married a Mr. 
Xoly and on March 31, l^in, she died at Anderson. 

The widow of Rev. Jonathan Wynn lived for a while at the 
old farm in Edgar county, HI., and finally married a Mr. Gibson, 
who died soon after. In 1ST!) the elder Asenath died in Ander- 
son, two weeks after the death of her daughter Caroline. 

Thomas, the only son of Lev. Jonathan and Mary Wynn, who 
reached the age of maturity, was born at Old's Forge, in Sehuyl- 

318 



kill comity, Pa., uii Nov. 22, 1S20, and during his early years 
lived at various places in the same State, and in 1839 he came 
with his father to Madison county, Ind., and lived on a farm near 
Alfont. In 1843, his lather having bought a farm in Edgar 
county. 111., he went there to live, and in a few years took entire 
charge of the estate. 

On Oct. 1, 1845, Thomas was married to Miss Lina IToult. 
The bride was born in Virginia on Dec. 20, 1S23, ami was the 
daughter of a prominent farmer of Edgar county, 111. To this 
couple were horn the following children: Mary Elizabeth, born 
.lime 2!», 1S46 ; John W., born Aug. 4, 1847.; Charles M., born 
May 22, 1849; Sarah Jane, born .March 4, 1851; Rachel Ann, 
born March 28, 1S52; Eosetta, horn Sept, IS, 1854; Viola, born 
May 28, 1857; Velmda, born April 3, I860. The wife, Lina 
Wynn, died on the 3d of March, 1861, leaving Mr. Wynn with a 
large family of small children to care for. So, a few months after 
being left a widower, he espoused his first wife's sister, Dorothy, 

who was at the time a widow of McKee, deceased. Dorothy 

Hoult was born in Virginia, March 12, 1822. Of this latter mar- 
riage three children were burn: Jonathan, born May 11, 1SC2; 
Isaac X., born July 31, 1863, and Elisha II., born Dec. 11, 1865. 
The mother of these last children died June 26, 1S75, and Eosetta, 
one of the older children, died May 17, 1869. 

Mr. Wynn continued to reside in Illinois until 1SS0, when he 
sold out and removed to Palo Pinto county, Texas, where he con- 
tinued to reside until his death on Sept. 24, 1906, in the eighty- 
sixth year of his age. On , , he married a third 

wife, Miss Lida Mitchell of Cincinnati, who survived him, and 
still lives at Wynne-wood Place, one of the most beautiful country 
homes of that State. 

Mary Elizabeth "Wynn, the eldest child, was married on May 
20, 1866, in Edgar county, 111., to John Thomas Sothers, who 
was born in the same county, Jan. 1, 1838. They resided in 
Edgar county, and their oldest child, William .Mitchell, was born 
March 16, 1867; he died April ID, 1867. In 1S6S they removed 
to Champaign county, 111., and Ida May was born Aug. 15, 1869 ; 
she djed Aug. 11, 1870. In 1870 they removed to Republic 
county, Kan., where their third child, Elmer Mitchell, was born, 
July 13, 1871. Jesse Edmund Sothers was born March 25, 1SS0, 
and John William Sothers was born April 5, 1SS2. 

319 



The olde.it living child, Elmer Mitchell Sothcrs married, Xov. 
7, 1894, Miss Clam Jane Downing, born Oct. In, 1871, in Han- 
cock county, 111. To this union were horn: Lloyd 1)., horn Sept. 
1, 1895, died Aug. 20, 189G; Gertrude .1., born June 24, 1900; 
Elder M., horn Fob. 3, 1909; Thelma E., horn Oct. 14, 1904, and 
Edna Slay, horn May 2, 1900. All in Republic county, Kan. 

.Jesse Edmund Sothcrs was married on .Ian. 10, 1906, to Miss 
Enagel Emily Tietjen, who was horn in Franklin county, Neb., on 
April 25, 1885. They have one child, Eva lone, horn Oct. 13, 
1900, in Franklin county, Xeh. 

John William Sothcrs was married Xov. 15, 1905, to Miss 
Frances Eva Woods, who was horn April 4, 1SS5, in Republic 
county, Kan. 

The father, John Thomas Sotbers, died on Sept. 10, 1900, in 
Shawnee county, Kan., after a lingering illness, and his widow 
now resides at Riverton, Kan. 

John W. Wynn, the eldest son of Thomas and Lina, was born 
at Bloomfield, Edgar county, 111., on the 4th day of August, 1S47. 
He has continued to live in the county ever since. He is one of 
the best known farmers of the county, and followed that occupa- 
tion actively until September, 1904, when he removed with his 
family to Paris, the county seat, where he has since resided. On 
Sept. 14, 1870, Mr. Wynn united in marriage with Miss Emma 
Jones, who was born at Logan, same county, July 10, 1850. To 
them was born a son, Charles, on Feb. 14, 1SS5, but who died 
July 2G, 1885. There was also born a daughter, Clara Laverna, 
on April 9, 1881. The mother died June IS, 1SS5, after a short 
illness. On July 1, 1886, Mr. Wynn married his first wife's 
sister, Laura May Jones, who was born at Logan, Sept. 10, 1802. 
To them were horn a daughter, Myrtle, at PJoomfield, on Aug. 20, 
1888. Miss Laverna Wynn is a graduate of Hamilton College, 
at Lexington, Ky., and resides with her parents. Miss Myrtle 
attended Palmer Academy, at Paris, Til. On Sept. 6, 1900, she 
was married to Conrad Lee Wittick, and they reside at Paris, Til. 

Charles Wynn continued to live on the old farm until grown, 
then went further West and finally settled near Waco, Texas, 
where he engaged in stock raising ami cotton growing. On March 
3, 1881, at Brandon, Texas, he was married to Miss Mary A. 
York, who was born near Carnesville, Ga., but moved to Texas 



u'licii ten years of age. The couple had the following named chil- 
dren: Cagah Watson, born .March 30, 1882; Gertrude, born 
Sept. 17, 1883; Thomas Edgar, born .March 18, 1S85; Sadie, born 
July 1, 18Si>; Linnie, born Oct. 13, 1888; all born in Brandon. 
The father, Charles, died Nov. 4, 1889, and was buried at Palo 
Pinto, Texas. 

Of his family, Gertrude died Dec. 31, 1SS4. The widow mar- 
ried J. A. Dillehay Xov. 30, 1S93. Edgar lives in Dallas, Texas, 
where ho is employed. The other children are at home. 

Sarah dam.' Wynn, being ten years old when her mother died, 
went to live with her aunt, Rachel Zeublin, at Pendleton, Ind. 
On Dec. 24, 1S74. she was married to Thomas B. Deem, at that 
time publisher of the Pendleton Register. The couple continued 
to reside there until December, 187<i, when they removed to 
Knightstown, Ind., where Mr. Deem bought and published the 
Banner until l.s,"v>. In 1SS7 Mr. Deem was made general man- 
ager of the Knightstown Natural Gas Company, and in 1892 he 
became manager of the Conserve Company's vegetable canning 
plant. There were born to Mr. and Mrs. Deem two sons and a 
daughter: Percy Wynn. born Jan. 1, 187<>; Donald Howard, 
bom Jan. 4, 18s,",, and Xadia Florence, born July 30, 1892. The 
first named was born in Pendleton, and died at El Paso, Texas, 
June 5, 1899; buried at Knightstown. The other children were 
born in Knightstown. Donald II. graduated from Purdue Uni- 
versity in 1906, and now holds a position with the Xew York 
Telephone Company at Brooklyn, X. Y. Xadia F. is still at 
home. The mother died after a long illness on July 30, 1S9S, 
and was buried at Knightstown. On Aug. 1, 1S09, Mr. Deem 
married Miss Martha G. Hall, who has been a truly exemplary 
mother of the former's children. 

Rachel A. Wynn was born in Edgar county. 111., and resided 
there for several years; then went to live with her sister, Mary, in 
Iowa, and moved with them to Republic county, Kan., where she 
was married on X'ov. 10, 1S72, to Mr. S. P. Mover, who was bom 
in Lee county, Iowa, Jan. 23, 1852. The couple returned to Ap- 
pomoose county, Iowa, and lived for several years. They have 
one son, John W. Mover, who was born during this period — Xov. 
23, 1875. In 1880 the family removed with Thomas Wynn to 
Palo Pinto, Texas, where they remained for a few years, and then 

321 



located in Weatherford, Texas, where they have since resided. 
Mr. Moyer is a carpenter and contractor. The son, John W. 
.Mover, studied law, was admitted to the bar and lias a tine prac- 
tice. He has served a term as county attorney. 

Viola Wynn was born in Edgar county, 111. While still a small 
girl she was taken to live with her aunt, Susan Arnold, at Mowea- 
qua, 111., where she remained for several years, and where she 
formed the acquaintance of her future husband, Mr. Thomas 
Hudson, to whom .-he was married -May 4, 187(J. They lived on 
a farm near Moveaqua till 1SSG, when they moved to Palo Pinto, 
Texas, remaining there a few years, and then returning to their 
former residence, where they still reside. There were born to 
them five daughters and three m>hs: Jessie, born Jan. 14, 1878; 
Lina, born March 2S, 1SS0 ; Louise Bay, born Aug. 5, 1S85; 
Harry Morton, born Jan. 30, 1SSS; James Edward, born Xov. 
17, 1891; Hester, bom Feb. 14, 1S95; Zoe, born Feb. 11, 1897; 
Ralph Karl, born Xov. 27, 1S9S. 

Linnie Wynn, the youngest daughter of Thomas Wynn, was 
born in Edgar county, 111. She lived at home, except one year, 
when she attended high school at Pendleton, Ind. She was mar- 
ried to William T. Watson Oct. 10, 1878, and they lived for two 
years at Ridge Farm, 111. Then Mr. Watson bought the old 
Wynn homestead and they lived thereon till about 1893, when 
they moved to Chrisman, 111. Here they continued to reside until 
Mrs. Watson's death, which occurred on May 2, 1905. Mr. Wat- 
son still owns the old farm. He is an enterprising farmer and 
stockman, and at one time was vice-president of the Chrisman 
Xational P>ank. He has large landed interests in southern Indi- 
ana. Seven children were born to this marriage: Walter (!., 
born Oct. 4, 1880, and died May 21, 1882; Minnie M., born Oct. 
20, 1884; Lida W., born Sept. 14, 18SG; Mabel M., born Dec. 
16, 1889; Martha M., bom Oct. 3. 1893; Newton E., born Jan. 
31, 1896, and John W., born Oct. 22, 1898. All arc living except 
the first named. Five of the children were born on the old farm; 
the last two at Chrisman. 

Jonathan, the oldest son of Thomas and Dorothy Wynn, was 
born in Illinois, and remained there until 1880, when he accom- 
panied his father to Texas. Here he was interested in farming 
and stock-raising until 1890, when he went further West and be- 

322 



came an employe of a railroad construction company, which was 
building a bridge across the Columbia river at Astoria, Oregon. 
On June 29, 1802, he came to his death by being struck with a 
falling timber, which knocked him senseless into the water, and 
he drowned before aid could reach him. 

The second son, Isaac Newton 3 was raised in Illinois, and ac- 
companied his father to Texas, where he was engaged for several 
years on the farm. He afterwards went to Mineral Wells, Texas, 
and established the Bank of Mineral Wells, of which he was made 
assistant cashier, and afterwards cashier, which place he has held 
ever since, lie married Miss Emma Duke. No children. 

Elisha Wynn, the youngest son, born in Illinois, remained 
there until 1880, when he accompanied his father and two brothers 
to Texas, where he continued to reside for several years. He after- 
wards went to Montana, where he died May 25, 1900. 

Sarah Wynn Mills, born Feb. 23, 1630, daughter of Rev. 
Jonathan Wynn, married Capt. Nathaniel Mills on Aug. 5, 
1S5S, removed to Northumberland county, Pa., and settled on a 
farm on the Susquehanna river, opposite Sunbury. They had 
three daughters: Caddie, born in 1S59 ; Fanny, born lSu'l, and 
Josephine, born 1SG3. Caddie and Josephine are unmarried. 
Fanny married Joseph B. Garrihan on Oct. 25, 1881. Their 
oldest son, William Nathaniel, was born Oct. 6, 18S2; Nellie, 
born Dec. 30, 1885; Toy, born July 21, 1SSS. The eldest son is 
a soldier in the Philippines. Mr. Garrihan died in January, 
1904. The family live at Garrihan, Allegheny county, Pa. 
Sarah Wynn Mills died March 19, 1890, but her husband, the 
captain, lives in Sunbury, Pa. 

Elizabeth Wynn was the daughter of Benjamin, the son of 
Thomas Wynn of Fayette county, Pa., and was bom Aug. 21, 
1811, and died June 23, 1S:>2. She married Isaac Burkholder, 
who was horn July 13, 1803, and died Oct. 10, 1ST0. They re- 
moved to Monticello, 111., where they lived for many years, and 
where they reared a family. Their children were .Mary Ann, 
born June 12, 1S35 ; Susan Jane, born March 11, 1839; Henry, 
born March 19, 1841 ; Adaline. born Oct. 7, 1843; Matilda, born 
Dec. 17, 1S45; Lydia, born Aug. 18, 1851. Susan married Ar- 
thur Phelps and has two ehildn n : she died July 23, 1S93. Ada- 
line married William Addis, and they live in Decatur, 111., and 

323 



have a son, Walter, who is married ;ui<l 1ms issue. Lvdia married 
Henry Addis, a brother of William. She died soon after mar- 
riage; they had a daughter. Mary Ann married P. S. Linell; 
they have four children, and live at Wichita, Kan. Henry mar- 
ried Carrie Shopicr; had two children. Matilda married Edward 
Brush, and had one son. 



FA M J I. V OF J A M ES W Y X XE. 

JAAIES WYXXE, the son of Thomas and Ann Wynne of 
Fayette connty, removed t<> Chester county, Pa., and was 
married there. He had three sons: Jonathan, Thomas and 
James. While the hoys were mere lads the father died, and the 
children were divided among the relatives. 

Jonathan, the eldest, was taken into the family of Jonathan 
Millard ami reared to maturity. After marrying he moved to 
Landenberg, in the southern part of Chester county, hut afterwards 
moved hack to Wot Xantmel township, where he continued to 
reside until his death, by consumption, in 1904. His son now 
lives near Downington, that county. His daughter, Sarah, mar- 
ried a Mr. McQuier and lives next to Bernard, near Coatsville, 
Chester county. Ik' had another son, hut we failed to learn his 
name or whereabouts. 

The third son, James, was reared by his uncle. Rev. Jonathan 
Wynne. He remained East with Rachel Zeublin until Jonathan 
Wynne sold Marsh Farm to Richard Thatcher, whereupon he 
stayed with Thatcher for a while, afterwards removing to Potfcs- 
ville to work for Samuel Mills on stage work. Afterwards he 
removed to Totter county, Pa., where he died in 1S.">4, and lies 
buried there. He never married. 

Thomas, the second son of James Wynne, was taken care of 
by Rev. Thomas Millard of Chester county, with whom he re- 
mained until manhood. They all came West to Crawford county, 
Ohio, in 1S34. Afterwards young Thomas came on West to Han- 
cock county, Ind., and settled on a farm. He was horn Nov. 12, 
1 S 2 2 , and on .May 17. 1S40, he married Mary Ann Cook, who 
was horn Sept. 9, IS27. Their children are: Susan ('., horn 

32 1 












-- 



fr- ^t 






DONALD H. DEEM. NEW YORK CITY 



Sept. 17, 1S50; Sarali E., born June 5, 1S52; Mary Alice, born 
Jan. IS, 1855; Barbara E., born May 27, 1857; Lina J., born 
Oct. 30, 18*10; Thomas T., born Oct. G, 1SG2, and Rachel S., 
born Fob. 18, 1SC5. The family removed to Edgar county, 111., 
and here Mary Alice died Sept. 23, 1S01, and Lina J. died Dec. 
4, 1801. Some of t lie younger children seem to have been born in 
that county. On the outbreak of the Great Rebellion the father, 
Thomas, enlisted and served during the war. Soon after his re- 
turn from the army the family returned to Hancock county, Lad., 
where the father died. The widow still survives, and resides with 
her daughter, Susan, at Ingalls, Ind. Of their remaining chil- 
dren we give the following: 

Susan C. Wynn, born Sept. 17, 1850, was married on Sept. 1, 

1872, to William D. Graves, who was born July 7, 184S, and died 
July 22, 1^~>1. They resided near Alfont, Madison county, Ind., 
and their children, all born in that neighborhood, are as follows: 

1, Mary M., born July 5, 1874. and died Feb. 3, 1870; 2, Cora A., 
born Jan. 2, 1876, and died Xov. 7, 187G ; 3, William W., born 
Aug. 1, 1878, married to Nellie Anderson on Xov. 7, 1896, and 
they live in Indianapolis, where Mr. G. is engaged in the storage 
business. Their children are Earl Forest, born May 2G, 1S9G; 
James William, born June 12, 1898; Everett Otis, born April 24, 
1901, and Percy Thomas, horn June 17, 1905. On the death of 
her husband, William D. Graves, the widow, Susan, married for 
her second husband Joseph Kimberly, who was born Oct. IS, 
1S47, with whom she lives at Ingalls, Ind. 

Sarah E. Wynn, the second daughter of Thomas Wynn, who 
was born June 5, 1^52, married near Alfont, Ind., on Feb. 20, 

1873, Mr. Joel Speer, who was born Oct. 29, 1850. Their chil- 
dren are: 1, Charles E., born Feb. 21, 1874, .lied July IS, 1S74 ; 

2, Jesse A., born April 27. 1S7G, married to Estella L. Folger on 
Dec. 24, 1895, have no children; 3, Anna E., born Aug. 21, 1877, 
was married to Adelhert ]>. Cox on Feb. 12, 1894, have one child, 
Gladys I., born Dec. 9, 1896; 4, David E., was born Feb. 21, 
1882, was married to Delia M. T.awson March 2G, 1903, have one 
child, Raymond D.. horn July 20, 1904; 5, William T., born 
March 20, 1SS5; 6, Elsie M., born July 17, 1891. On the 21st 
day of August, 1806, Joel Speer, the father, died, and three years 
thereafter, on July 2G. 1899, the widow, Susan (Wynn), married 
Joseph W. Iliday, who was horn Jan. 9, 1830. They live at 
Ingalls, Ind. 

327 



Barbara Ella, the fourth child of Thomas Wynne, was born 
May 27, 1857. She was married to William Teague on Dec. 2'.), 
1878* To them were burn two sons: 1, Tracy S., Oci. 22, 1S79, 
who married Lola C. Ovler April 16, 1902, and had one child, 
Thclnia O., born Dee. 28, 1 f»o:J ; 2, Brady League, born Jan. 2, 
1 SSI, and died April of same year. The mother, Barbara Ella 
(Wynn), also died June 10, 18S1. The father, William Teague, 
lives in Greenfield, Ind. The older son, Tracy, went to live with 
his grandmother at Pendleton, Ind., until grown. He now lives 
with his family at the same place. 

Thomas T., only son of Thomas Wynne, was born Oct. G, 18G2, 
and died .May 29, 1875. 

Rachel G., the youngest child of Thomas Wynne, was born 
Feb. 18, 1S65. She married Morton Dennis, a baggagernaster, of 
Anderson, Ind., where they now reside. Rachel has two children: 
Everett, born Oct. 30, 1SS5, and Lulu May, born July 22, 1SS7. 



THE OHIO BRANCH. 



JOHN WYXX was the son of Jonathan Wynn ami Lettie 
Hewett, and was born in Chester county, Pa., on Jan. 12, 
1791. He was married to Rebecca Hiilman at East Xantmel, 
that county, on April 13, 1816, Rev. Joseph Hunter officiating. 
His bride was born Oct. 21, 1790. They continued to reside at 
the old homestead of Marsh Farm till 1834, when they emigrated 
to Ohio, settling in Crawford county, that State. Here Mr. 
Wynn cleared a farm and improved it, and raised a large family, 
ami continued to reside there until his death, which occurred Aug. 
10, 1864. His wife followed him to the Great Beyond on Sept. 
22, 1866. The family were prominent and influential in their 
district. They had nine sons and two daughters, born as follow-: 
Jonathan, April 2:., 1817; Michael Holloran, Feb. 8. 1S1!); 
Leonard Asbury, .March 21. 1821; Thomas, Dec. :'.. 1822; Sam- 
uel. May 31, 1S25; l.-aac, Feb. 27, 1827; Anna Maria, Nov. 19, 
1S2S: John Librand, April 11. 1S31 ; Ewart Smith. March 1. 
1833; David, Aug. 2S, 1S35: Elizabeth Jane, April 1, 18:18. Of 
this number, Michael died Oct. 1, 1823, and Leonard Asbury died 

328 



March 24, 1820. The others lived to years of maturity. We are 
able t<> give the following information concerning the other chil- 
dren : 

Jonathan Wynn was horn in Chester county, Pa., April 25, 
1817; moved with parents to Crawford county, Ohio, in October, 
1834. On Dec. 20, 1838, he was married to .Miss Eliza A. Cum- 
mins of Auburn township, Crawford county, Ohio. By trade he 
was a millwright. Mr. and Mrs. Wvnn resided in Crawford and 
Huron counties until 18-49, when they moved to Lucas county, 
Ohio (Spencer township), and in 1853 they bought a farm (in 
the woods) near Toledo, where they lived until their death. Mr. 
Wynn died Jan. 21, 1805, and Mrs. Wynn's death occurred Feb. 
9, 1SSS. Their children: 

David Harrison Wynn, born in Crawford county, Dec. 28, 
1840. He served in the Rebellion three years, Company H, 111th 
Regt. O. V. I. He never married and is now living at Long 
Beach, Cal. 

Elmira Amanda Wynn, born in Crawford county, Dec. 30, 
1S42. Married Oct. 1, 1870, to James K. Jones of Grafton, Ohio. 
She died near Toledo, Aug. 23, 1873. 

Henry Clay Wynn, born in Crawford county, Sept. 24, 1845. 
Died Feb. 2G, 1857. 

Eliza Ellen Wynn, born in Huron county, Dec. 6, 1847. Mar- 
ried Dec. 22, 1873, to Samuel Spark Minuse of Milan, Ohio. 
Mrs. Minuse died in Toledo, Feb. 10, 1906. To Mr. and Mrs. 
Minuse were born four children: 

Hartwell Norton Minuse, born Xov. 3, 1874. 

Alfred Wynn Minuse, born Dec. 12, 1879. Married June 6, 
1903, to Miriam Reed of Xew York City. Mr. Minuse graduated 
from Toledo High School and later graduated from Webb 
Academy, Xew York, as a marine architect. Mr. and Mrs. 
Minuse have one daughter, Olive, born Aug. 26, 1905. 

Samuel Marks Minuse, born July 27. 1882. 

lone Eliza, born Sept. 22, 1887. 

Mary M. Wynn, born in Lucas county, July 12, 1850. Mar- 
ried Feb. 10, 1SS6, to John Eteau of Toledo. To them were born 
three children : 

Edna Eliza Eteau, born May 9, 1888. She is a teacher in 
Lucas county. 

329 



John Leonard Eteau, born Oct. 15, 1SS9. 

Earl Wynn Eteau, born Dee. 31, 1891. 

Nancy A. Wynn, born in Lucas county, Feb. 17, 1852. Mar- 
ried April 14, 1ST:., to Peter B. Miller. Died July 20, 1S93. 
To them were born four sons and three daughters : 

Edith Wynn Miller, born Jan. IS, 1876. Married to C. Ray 
Woodward of Liberty Center, Ohio, where they reside. 

Frank E. Miller, born July 13, 1877. 

Ernest Paid Miller, born March 12, 1SS2. 

Orville Elaine .Miller, born Nov. 20, 1883. 

Ethel Pearl Miller, horn June 21, 1SSG. Died Feb. 17, 190G. 

Byron Gordon Miller, horn Jan. IS, 1888. 

Sarah Angeline Miller, horn Dec. 15, 189 i. Died April 11, 
1S93. 

Thomas J. Wynn, horn in Lucas county, Dec. 10, 1S53. 
Married April 4, 1SSS, to Emma E. Tippin. To them was horn 
one daughter: 

Alice Irene Wynn, born April 2, 1895. Died July 15, 190G. 

John Charles Fremont Wynn, born in I/ucas county, Dec. 13, 
1S56. Unmarried and living in San Francisco, Cal. 

Pearl 0. Wynn. horn in Lucas county, Ohio, Feb. 13, 1S65. 
Married Dec. 3, 1SS9, to Dr. Harry P. Ilaag of Liberty Center, 
Ohio, where they now reside. 

Thomas Wynn, son of John and Bcbecca Ilallman Wynn, was 
born in Chester county, Pa., Dec. 3, 1822, and died at his home 
on his farm, five miles northeast of Toledo, O., where he had lived 
for forty-eight years. On Sept. 21, 1843, he- was married to Miss 
Xancy Cummins in Crawford county, Ohio. To them were horn 
one son and five daughters. The son and one daughter died as 
infants. The- others are as follows: 

Clarissa Ann Wynn. bom July 30, 1845, in Crawford county. 
She was married on June 27, 1SG7, to Samuel Jacobs, of Toledo, 
Ohio. They have five daughters: 1. Xorma, horn April 19, 
1SG8, iu Toledo; she was married on June 2, 1904, to W. G. 
Crummond of Detroit, Mich., the wedding occurring in Mala- 
bang, .Mindanao, Philippine Islands. They now live in Xew 
York City. She was a teacher in Toledo public schools for twenty 
years. 2. Elsie, born in Toledo, Dec. 28, 1S69; graduated from 
Toledo High School in June. 1888. On Oct. G, 1891, she was 

330 



married to David Baldwin Gihnore of Toledo, and they have two 
sons: Abraham Donald, burn Dec. 4, 1S93, and Samuel Gordon, 
born Xov. 24, 1S0G, both born in Toledo. 3. Clara Jacobs, born 
Sept. 29, 1S72, in Toledo; who graduated from the high school in 
June, 1S90, and is now a teacher in the city schools. 4. Mabel 
Wynn Jacobs, born May 27, 1876, in Toledo. On Jan. 28, 1903, 
she was married to Frederick Curtis of Jonesville, Mich., and they 
have one son — Robert Wade, born Xov. 29, 190G, in Jonesville. 
5. Nancy Helen Jacobs, born in Toledo, Oct. 22, 18S2. In June, 
1900, she graduated from Toledo High School. 

Mary Rebecca Wynn was born Dec. 27, 1S46, in Crawford 
county, Ohio, and died Jan. 10, 1855, in Lucas county, Ohio. 

Margaret Letitia Wynn was born Feb. 23, 1S4S, in Lucas 
county, Ohio, and died March 31, 1S52. 

Xorman Saline Wynn was born Feb. 23, 1S57, in Lucas 
county, Ohio. On Aug. 1, 1S92, she was married to Charles 
Williams Douglass, of Toledo, O. 

. Ewart Smith Wynn was born in Chester county, Pa., March 
10, 1S33. He came to AYellersville, Crawford county, Ohio, three 
years later with his parents. On Aug. 14, 1859, he was married 
to Miss Sarah A. Hageman, who was born in Rowsburg, Wayne 
county, Ohio, Jan. 10, 1835. Six children -were born to this 
couple. The wife died Oct. 2, 1S96. The children are as follows: 

Henry "Wilson Wynn was horn April S, I860. He followed 
farming for many years, but latterly has retired. He never 
married. 

Matilda Jane Wynn was born March 6, 1S62. On Dec. 12, 
18S3, she married Ecnj. F. Cummings, and to them were bom 
five children: Mary Estella, born Sept. 29, 18S4, now a school 
teacher; Margaret Maud, horn June 20, 1888; Otto Thomas, born 
July 14. 1890, student; Howard Smith, horn June 4, 1893, 
student; Leah Rebecca, born June 16, 1902. 

John Franklin Wynn was horn Jan. 1, 1864. To him and his 
wife were l>om Ewart Smith, Aug. 9, 1891 ; Gladys, born Jan. S, 
1895. Ewart died Oct. 24, 1893. 

Catherine Rebecca Wynn was born Feb. 11, 1S66. Single. 

Charles Leonard Wynn was born Feb. 16, 1S6S. Single. 

George Irving Wynn was born May 28, 1S71. Single. 



The elder Ewart Smith Wynn and most of his family live in 
Toledo, Ohio, and are well-to-do people. 

Elizabeth .lane Wynn was the youngest member of a family 
of eleven children. She was born in Crawford county, Ohio, 
April 4, 183S. She was united in marriage on Xov. 22, I860, 
with John H. Millard, and the union was blessed with four chil- 
dren. Tlie family are Presbyterians. The mother died on Nov. 
23, 1S97, at her home in Calhoun, 111., where the family have for 
some years resided. Following are her descendants: 

May Millard was born Sept. 22, 1863, and was married to 
Charles Williamson May 10, 1S90; to whom were born Edna, 
Dee. 21, 1890; John, Aug. 24, 1892; Elma, Aug. 28, 1894; 
Homer, Feb. 11, 1900. The husband is a fanner. 

Jay Millard was bom April 12, 1866. He is a machinist, and 
is single. 

Irving Millard was born in the fall of 1874, and died when only 
three and one-half years old. 

Burton Millard was born Dec. 23, 1877. lie married Edith 
Jones on March 20, 1899. He is a farmer and machinist. This 
union was blessed with three daughters: Clara, born Jan. 29, 
1900; F>essie, duly 20, 1001 ; Velda, Dec. 21, 1004. 

David Wynn, the eighth son of John Wynn, was born in Craw- 
ford county, Ohio, Aug. 28, 1S35. Upon the outbreak of the 
Civil War he enlisted July 30, 1861, in Co. E. 34th Regt. O. V. I., 
and served over three years. He fought through the Virginia 
campaigns, and participated in thirty-eight engagements, among 
which were Fayetteville, Princeton, Charleston, Averill's Raid, 
Lynchburg, Summit Point, Cedar Creek, ami Sheridan's Shen- 
andoah campaign. Much of this time he served as scout, con- 
tinually in that line. He was discharged Sept. 13, 1864. From 
disease caused by exposure during this term he suffered much in 
later years. He was married to Elizabeth Curtis of Crawford 
county, on May 21, 1865. They moved to Adams county, Tnd., 
in April, 1867, where they continued to reside. Mr. Wynn died 
at his home near Berne, Ind., on Jan. 27, 1^02. His wife still 
lives on the old homestead. They were the parents of the follow- 
ing children : 

Orthie Wynn, born March 26, 1866. She was united in mar- 
riage with John 11. Clancy July 30, 18S5, foreman of bridge 

332 



carpenters on the G. R. & I. railroad. Two children were born 
to them: Glenn 1)., May 27, 1886, who is now a telegrapher at 
Decatur, Ind., and Electa, Oct. 11, 1888, wlio is a high school 
student in Decatur. 

Tyrclla Wymi was born Sept. 2i, 1S67, died March 5, 1SSC. 

Reuben Monroe Wynn, horn Oct. 21, 1869, was united in mar- 
riage to Edith O. Smith March 11, 1891. Their only child was 
Ruby ()., born Dec. 1, 18!>4. The mother died four weeks later. 
Reuben married Miss Sophia Gross on Aug. 20, 189C, to whom 
four children were born: lona, Aug. 8, 1897; Medford, Xov. 
22, 1899; Ethel, Oct. 28, 1900; Helen, Sept. 30, 1904. Mr. 
Reuben Wynn is a bridge carpenter on the G. R. & I. R. R. 

Anna Maria Wynn, the oldest daughter of John Wynn, was 
born in Crawford county, Ohio, Xov. 1!), 182S. She was married 
there on Feb. 12, 1S54, to Mr. Albanus Sawyer, and the young 
couple went to housekeeping in Auburn township of that county, 
where they continued to reside, and where the wife died July 7, 
1899, and the husband also died Feb. 17, 1903. Mr. Sawyer at 
the time of his death was the oldest native resident of his town- 
ship, being horn there Sept. 20, 1823. He was an enterprising 
citizen and occupied at various times the offices of township treas- 
urer and assessor, and for more than a score of years was a mem- 
ber of the township hoard of education. The following are the 
descendants of this worthy couple: 

Cornelia Sawyer was horn Jan. 28, 1855, married to William 
Render Sept. 3, 1878, and have ever since resided on their farm in 
the home country. They had three daughters: Rilla May, born 
Dec. IS, 1873, was married to John W. llutt, November, 1891, and 
live on farm in Sharon township, Richland county. Their chil- 
dren are: Hazel Fern, horn March 1, 1S92 ; Ralph Emerson, 
born April 24, 1893 ; Ola Vesta, horn Feb. 4, 1895 ; Inez Cornelia, 
Sept. 1."., 1901; Asa William, Feb. 24, 11)04. The other daugh- 
ters of William and Cornelia Bender — Minnie, horn May 13, 
1885, and lone, horn Dec. 2(5, 1892 — live with their parents. 

Asa Sawyer was born Dec. 20, 1856, and died Dec. 5, 1SS4. 
He married Alta M. Trago, Oct. 10, 1881. They began house- 
keeping in the old Sawyer homestead. A daughter was horn to 
this union, Mabel A. Sawyer, Xov. 0, 18S2, who now resides with 
her mother in Plymouth, O. 

333 



Rule Sawyer was born July 10, 1858. He was married to Dora 
Jeffers of Richmond, Ind. They now reside in Richmond, where 
Mr. Sawyer is engaged in business. No children have been born 
to this union. 

Royal E. Sawyer was born June 4, 1SG0. He received a liberal 
education, taught school many years, but is now engaged in farm- 
ing and insurance work. He married Eunice L. Trago Dec. 2-4, 
1SS5, and they had four children: Huron E., born Dec. 17, 1SSG, 
who taught school, graduated from the commercial department of 
the Ohio Northern University in December, 1905. The other 
children are living at home. 

Erastus Sawyer, fourth son of Anna Maria, was born March 
30, 1SG2, and died Oct. 31, 1864. 

Clara Sawyer was born April 22, 1861, and died Jan. 4, 1SS5. 
She was well educated and taught several terms of school. 

Anna Sawyer was born Feb. IS, 1S60, and married Isaiah W. 
Soiulou Oct. 30, 188G. Mr. Soudon was born in Crawford county, 
Sept. 19, 1SG3. They had four children: Erma, born May 24, 
1SSS ; Homer and Harry (twins), born Feb. G, 1S94 ; Lela, born 
July G, 1S99. ' This family are engaged in farming and live in 
Henry county, Ohio. 

Lotta Sawyer was born Feb. S, 18GS. She Avas united in mar- 
riage Jan. 1, 1S91, to James S. Morrow, who was born in Craw- 
ford county, Aug. 1, 1SGG. They have three children: Floyd S., 
bom Jan. 10, 1S92; Russell E., born Feb. 4, 1S9G; Iva A., born 
March 6, 1904. They live on a farm in Auburn township, Craw- 
ford county, Ohio. 

John F. Sawyer, the youngest son, was born Jan. 31, 1871. He 
married Jennie W. Hanna Jan. 1, 1900, and they have three 
children : Waldo Vera, born June 20, 1901 ; Dwight Franklin, 
born Aug. 27, 1902 ; Mildred Winona, born Aug. 19, 1905. They 
live upon the old Sawyer homestead. 

John Librand Wynn, seventh son of John Wynn, Sr., was born 
April 11, 1831. He married Mazy McConnell, who died some 
years later. They had no children. He is in a manner now de- 
mented from illness, and makes his home with Samuel, his brother. 
Has been in this condition for thirteen years. He is possessed of 
a considerable fortune. 



334 







>■■•■ 



. 




NAIjIA FLORENCE DEEM. KNIUHTSTOW'N. IND. 



Isaac Wynn, sixth son of John Wynn, was born in Chester 
county, ]'a., Feb. 7, 1827. He was married in 1866 to Emma 
Jane .Millard, daughter of Thomas .Millard, who was the son of 
Hannah Wynne of Chester county, Pa. She was nineteen years 
his junior. They still live on the old Wynn homestead, .Mr. 
Wynn being T'.i years old, and "cats like a wood-chopper and sleeps 
like a child." They have four children: 

Erie Clayton Wynn was born Feb. 17, 1868; died in child- 
hood. 

Roy B. Wynn was born Her. !), 1870; died in childhood. 

Estella Lois Wynn, bora Jan. 9, 1n7-'j; lives at home. 

Ivo Elsie Wynn. born Aug. 22, 1676; is a trained nurse, having 
graduated from Toledo Training School for Nurses — winning the 
medal of honor in a class of fifteen in May, 1903. 

Loyal Leigh ton Wynn, horn March 22, 1881 ; is a building con- 
tractor. 

Glenn Herbert Wynn, horn Dec. 9, 1883, manages the home 
farm. 

WYXNK 5JOTKS. 

Mrs. Sarah L. Bailey, of Philadelphia, who died in March, 
190-t, was a great-great-granddaughter of Dr. Thomas Wynne. 
She was bora Nov. 25, 1810. 

Dr. R. J. Levick of Bala, Philadelphia, is a descendant. 

Charles L. Warner of Westchester is a descendant. 

A Capt. John (Winn) Wynne resided in Franklin county, Pa., 
in 1812. 

A will of John Wynn of St. George county, Md., dated March 
1, 1752, mentions children: Ann, John, Josiah, Jemima, Joan, 
Mary, Martha, Susanna. Another will, dated Dec. 21, 1703, in 
the same county and state, by Josiah Wynn, names children: 
William, Josiah, Daniel, Chloe, and he had other children. A 
Thomas Wynn was in .Maryland in 1(171. He was a sub-sheriff 
in 1(378, and doorkeeper of Colonial Assembly. He was son of 
Gruffyd Wynn of Bryn yr Owen ap Richard ap John Wynn of 
Trefechan, near Wrexham and Ruahon, Denbighshire, Wales. 

Au account of Warner, John anil Josiah Wynn, states that the 
latter died in Dauphin county, Pa., in 1820. 

Joseph Wynn, Ardmore, Pa., and Theodore Wynne, Philadel- 
phia, are among the unclassified members. 

337 



Christian Wynne of Walts was transported to Virginia in the 
Safety, August, lfio.">. Joseph Wynne arrived on the George ship, 
Aug. 21, lC>;io. Also Griffin Winne arrived at Jamestown in ship 
Bonaventura. 

Members of the Wynne family are mentioned in the Pennsyl- 
vania archives as follows. We give name, volume and page: 

Wynne, Thomas Vol. 14, pages 17, 301, 311 

Wynne, Jonathan Vol. 24, page 103 

Wynne, John Vol. 14, page 88 

Wynne, Francis Vol. 23, page 378 

Wynne, Daniel Vol. 26, page 525 y 

Wynne, Charles Vol. 14, page 659 

Wynne, Vol. 20, page 96 

Wynne, Webster ' Vol. 23, page 335 

Wynne, Weaver Vol. 11, page 616 

Wynne, Warner . : Vol. 12, pages 66, 296, 760 

Wynne, Wardner Vol. 12, pages 400, 523 

Wynne, Thomas Vol. 12, pages 760, XXII, 635 

Wynne, Samuel Vol. 11, pages 233, 501, 615, 6S5 

Wynne, Samuel Vol. 19, pages 675, 765 

Wynne, Jonathan Vol. 11, pages 232, 615 

Wynne, Jonathan Vol. 12, pages, 65, 294, 399, 400, 521, 523, 758 

Wynne, Jonathan Vol. 19, pages 677, 766 

Wynne, Jonathan Vol. 23, pages 247, 250, 348 

Wynne, Jonathan Vol. 26, page 526 

Wynne, John Vol. 14, pages 340, XVI, 100 

Wynne, James Vol. 11, pages 234, 501, 616, 685 

Wynne, James Vol. 12, pages 80, 296, 400 

Wynne, Jacob Vol. 13, page 523 

Wynne, Isaac Vol. 11, pages 482, 609 

Wynne, Isaac Vol. 16, page 348 

Wynne, Isaac Vol. 20, pages 227, 496, 653 

Wynne, Benjamin Vol. 24, page 782 

Wynne, Ahaziah Vol. 19, pages 677, 766 

Wynne, George Vol. 23, pages 247, 250, 267, 348 

Winn, Catherine Vol. 25, page 417 

Winn, Henry Vol. 25, pages 316, 353 

Winn, Isaac Vol. 11, pages 57, 338 

Winn, Isaac Vol. 16, pages 783, 797 

Winn, Isaac Vol. 20, pages 104, 761 

Winn, Isaac Vol. 22, page 79S 

Winn, James Vol. 1 1 , pages 57, 389, 694 

Winn, James Vol. 22, page 725 

Winn, John Vol. 15, pages 407 XVI, 301 

Winn, Jonathan Vol. 11, pages 55, 387, 500, 684 

Winn, Jonathan Vol. 19, pages 592, XXIII, 267 

Winn, Josiah. . . . v Vol. 17, page 704 

Winn, Samuel. . . ' Vol. 11, pages 55, 388 

Winn, Samuel Vol. 19, pages 427, 464, 511, 577 

Winn, Thomas Vol. 24, page 328 

Winn, Warner Vol. 11, page 686 

Winn, Webster Vol. 23, pages 287, 318 

Winne. John Vol. 14, page 90 

Win, John Vol. 14, page 380 

Win, Henry v Vol. 23, page 296 

Win, Isaac Vol. 14, page 402 



Owen Jones, a descendant of Mai; Wynne, daughter of Dr. 
Thomas Wynne, married Susanna Evans at Merion, Ta., who was 
a lineal descendant of William the Conqueror. Their daughter, 
Hannah Jones, married Thomas Foulke of Philadelphia, whose 
son, Edward Foulke, married Tracy Jones, and their daughter, 
Anna, married Dr. Hiram Corson of Conshohocken, Pa., whose 
daughter, Susan Folke Corson, married Jawood Lukens of same 
town. 

Richard Wynn, a soldier of the Revolution, horn in Virginia 
in 174!), entered the patriot army as a young man and served 
throughout the war. He was promoted from the rank to various 
official positions, becoming brigadier-general at the close of hos- 
tilities. He subsequently settled in South Carolina, where he was 
elected to Congress, and served as representative until his death 
in 1S13. — Ency. Britt. 

Thomas Wynn was born in Xorth Carolina in 17G4 and entered 
the Colonial army on the outbreak of hostilities with the mother 
country. In 17 SO he was taken prisoner and conveyed to London, 
but returned at the close of the war and renewed his residence in 
North Carolina, lie was a member of the convention by which 
the Constitution of 178S was adopted, and afterwards served as a 
member of Congress from 1.802 to 1807. He died in Hertford 
county, X. C, June 3, 1825. 

The following genealogy is taken from Browning's Americans 
cf Royal Descent: "Mary Wynne m. Dr. Edward Jones, died 
1737, and had Jonathan Jones of Merion, who m. Gainer, d. of 
Robt. Owen, also of royal descent, who had Owen Jones, sen., 
1711-03, Treas. of Pennsylvania, who m. Susanna, d. of Hugh 
Evans, son of Thomas ap Evan of Gwynedd, Pa., also of royal 
descent, and had Lowrie Jones, who m. John Morgan Wister of 
Philadelphia in 1S0T>, and had Susan Wister, who in. John Mor- 
gan Price of Philadelphia, and had: 1, Lowrie Wister Price, who 
m. Charles Humphrey; 2, Rebecca Price, who unirried Robert 
Toland of Philadelphia, and had: 1, Henry Toland ; 2, Robert 
Toland of Philadelphia, who m. Anna, d. of Edward Crathorne 
Dale, and had: 1, Susan Price Dale; 2, Edward Dale; 3, Robert; 
4, Matilda Dale. Susan Toland m. Richard A. Tilghman of 
Philadelphia — of royal descent — and had: Benj. Chew, Edith, 
Susan T., Richard A., Agues, Angela." 

339 



The Smedley family, whose family record, already published, 

contains oxer one thousand pages, was intermarried with the de- 
scendants of Dr. Thomas Wynne. Many years ago they came into 
possession of Wynnestaye, the famous old Colonial estate of the 
Wynnes, north of Philadelphia. From the Smedley history wc 
glean the following paragraph: "In IS95 William P. Smedley 
interested his cousin, Walter Smedley, ami George P. Roberts, 
president of the Pennsylvania R. R. Co., and a number of his 
friends in the purchase of over one hundred acres of land just 
west of Fairmount Park on the Penn & Schuylkill R. R. An 
association was formed for the improvement of the tract, with S. L. 
and W. Smedley as managers. A new station was erected on the 
property and called Wvnnefield Av. in memory of Dr. Thomas 
Wynne, the physician of William Penn, and in whose descend- 
ants the title to about half the property had remained till this 
purchase. This tract is now becoming one of Philadelphia's most 
attractive suburbs." 

In the history of the Snicdleys appears the following item: 
"Elizabeth Jane Yarnell, born 1857, m. Ardmore, Pa., Jan. 1, 
1894. to Joseph J. Wyun, b. Reading, Pa., Mar. 17, 1857, son of 
John L. Wynn and Amelia James. Xo issue." 

Also in the same Smedley history appears: "Ella E., daughter 
of Davis Bishop, married T. Xcwton Wynn, attorney-at-law, West- 
chester, Pa., and has children — Mary Florence, Minnie lone, and 
I. Newton Earl." 

Also in the same Smedley history appears : "Dr. Thomas 
Wynne was executor of Richard ap Thomas (a Smedley)." 



310 



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